It is doubtful If the average American visitor to Paris fully realized, as he wandered through the streets gazing upon the wealth of historic architecture, just how many remembrances of his own countrymen were linked for all time with those very stones. It would hardly seem exaggerated to say that up until 1914 few, if any, of the globe trotters really cared. It was not America that they had come to look for in France. But during the last five years such has been the tide of events that a general clamor has risen to know more of the part played by the U. S. A. on foreign soil. And it is, therefore, in answer to this demand that we have sought to compile a little volume which aims to locate definitely as well as give brief data concerning the places actually inhabited by, or spots which have witnessed the activities of Americans.
To seek in the Paris of to-day bygone remembrances or living testimony of men and events is to epitomise the history of Franco-American relations, literary, artistic and commercial, for over two hundred years.
As early as the seventeenth century America began to be represented in Paris other than by a few miserable Indians brought hence by French explorers of the new world. From that time (1653) dates the founding of many trading companies which even then sought to establish regular business relations, and among which the most far-famed was probably the Mississippi Company, headed by Law.
It has been indeed curious to discover how much enthusiasm Paris actually manifested for a then quite unknowm region of the present United States. And if Law and his System found people quite ready to enthuse about the Mississippi, it must be recollected that all sorts of misleading accounts were spread abroad, and most profusely. Imaginary views of the country along the river were struck off and accompanied by tales telling of mountains of gold, silver and copper just waiting to be carried away. Other pictures showed the French arriving on the Mississippi, the Indians greeting them with their hands on their hearts. And then again this fabulous country of the great river was destined to disturb Paris anew, and in a most extraordinary way.
In order to people the French settlements in America the government of Louis XV decided to seize all the young vagabonds of Paris and embark them forcibly for the Mississippi or Canada; but it sometimes happened that respectable persons were caught in the round-up, and in consequence arose the incidents of May, 1750, which were almost the cause of serious trouble in many quarters where the police agents were accused of having carried off children from five to ten years of age.
This opening period composed of strange tales and romantic adventures came to a close with the first diplomatic agreement that took place in Paris, in which the history of the United States was concerned. The treaty signal February 10th, 1763, put an end to the Seven Years' War between France, Spain and England but deprived France of all her territorial possessions in North America east of the Mississippi River.
It was about this time that the minds of the 18th Century, alive with new and curious ideas, and in search of more precise knowledge, began really to busy themselves with the new world. Voltaire practically opened the epoch with his L'Huron, and L'Ingénu. In 1776 Marmontel achieved great success with L'Incas, Chamfort's first play was called La Jeune Indienne, while Abbe Raynal praises the Americans in his Histoire Philosophique des Deux Indes a volume supposed to have been one of the causes of what was then termed the "American fever." A countless number of books and tracts were issued in Paris, all more or less consecrated to America, then regarded as a paradise of equality by that 18th century society, so saturated with paradoxical ideas. In the Beaux Arts, as in the fashions, everything was à l'Amérique.
This atmosphere prepared the way for France's participation in the War of Independence whose history was written by the swords of Lauzun, Segur, Bouille, Bougainville and Barras, at Yorktown and Chesapeake. But it was in Paris and in Versailles that La Fayette enrolled the hearts of his countrymen for the cause of Liberty; it was in Paris that Franklin, as the reward for untiring and skillful diplomacy, signed the treaty of Alliance and Commerce, February 6th, 1778; and was it not at Versailles that Great Britain, by the Treaty of September 3rd, 1783, recognized the Independence of the United States?
Then came the troubled epoch of the French Revolution, and one of the then most popular songs in Paris, Ça ira, borrowed its title from Franklin's favourite expression, during his residence in the city.
Throughout this agitated fin de siècle, Jefferson, Monroe, Payne and Fulton left in the capital the recollection of their diplomatic missions and the traces of their activity; while such Frenchmen as Barbe-Marbois, Brissot, Bailly, Talleyrand, to mention but a few, left France to visit the United States. Then followed various epochs of diplomatic negotiating which culminated in the sale of Louisiana to the United States for fifteen millions of dollars.
During the long period of peace between the wars of the first Empire and 1870, Americans came in ever greater numbers to Paris. To name them would be but to enumerate most of the country's great men in all walks of life. Some even remained and the American Colony became more and more important, several of its residents, such as Dr. Evans and Mr. Washburne, having played a very active part in the city's history in 1870-1871.
In the years that followed, the bonds of friendship were more closely knit by the participation of the United States in the Universal Expositions that were held in Paris in 1878, 1889 and 1900. Intellectual, artistic and scientific interchanges, which increased between the two countries, caused the coming of such men as Graham Bell, Edison, Stanley, Whistler, Sargent and Roosevelt.
It was in Paris that the treaty between the United States and Spain was signed in 1898, and coincident with recurring centenaries statues of Washington, Franklin and La Fayette have been erected in its public squares.
On the eve of the Great War in 1914 about twenty-five thousand Americans formed in Paris a foreign colony, active in developing useful and lasting relations between the two countries, thus preparing the ground for the splendid mani- festations of Franco-American unity during the past five years.
Even before the official participation of the United States in the war, numerous private endowments, of which the first in date as in importance was the American Ambulance at Neuilly, testified to American generosity in Paris.
Neither has the city forgotten the courageous attitude of the Hon. Myron T. Herrick, United States Ambassador, during the trying days at the end of August, 1914. For when the Germans were hourly expected to reach the capital, Mr. Herrick was not only preoccupied by the safety of his compatriots, and the preparation of notices destined to be placed on the buildings occupied by them, but also about the safety of the city itself, declaring that if the capital were threatened by the enemy troops he would use all his authority as a neutral to protect it
"Paris," he said, "belongs not alone to France, but to the world."
FRANCES WILSON HUARD
To render research easier the streets have been classified in alphabetical order. The number in Roman capitals which follows the name of each street is that of the District (Arrondissement) of Paris in which that street may be found.
The shape of the present volume is such as not to permit inserting a good, useful map of the city. Such a map, with index to every street, may be procured at a trifling expense from any stationer or bookseller in the city of Paris. Ask for Le Plan de Paris.
In many cases the editor has preferred retaining the French word "Hôtel," meaning, not a public dwelling house, but a spacious private mansion, and begs that the two should not be confounded.
[In the text below, the authors use the verb "to assist" in the French sense of "to be present".]
The part of the Rue Amelot comprised between the Rue St.-Sebastien and the Rue Oberkampf was for a long time called the Rue St.-Pierre. It was at former No. 16 that John Howard Payne resided, about the year 1822.
Anjou (Quai d') ---(IV).
No. 17. ---Hôtel, called de Lauzun, built between 1650 and 1658. It was inhabited by Charles Baudelaire (1821- 1867), the celebrated French poet, who consecrated many years to the translation of the works of Edgar Poe, at that time still unknown in France. Among the translations, that of the Extraordinary Tales is particularly remarkable.
Anjou (Rue d') ---(VIII).
The Expiatory Chapel, situated at the extremity of the Rue d' Anjou, bordering the Boulevard Haussmann, occupies the site of the old cemetery of the Madeleine, in which a large number of the victims of the Revolution were buried, among whom were Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Among others who were guillotined and who were buried there we may mention Brissot, guillotined the 31st October, 1793, and Admiral d'Estaing, guillotined the 28th April, 1794.
No. 8. ---The hôtel in which La Fayette died, the 20th May, 1834, at half past four in the morning. The following inscription, engraved on a white marble tablet, has been placed there :
"General La Fayette, defender of Liberty in America, one of the founders of Liberty in France, born the 6th September 1757 at the Château of Chavagnac in Auvergne, died in this house the 20th May 1834."
His obsequies took place on the 22nd May, and were celebrated at 9 o'clock at the Church of the Assumption in the Rue St.-Honoré.
No. 36. ---On this site once stood the hôtel of General J. V. Moreau (1763-1813), the only general whose reputation could have been opposed to that of Bonaparte, He was living there at the time of his arrest, when he was implicated in the conspiracy of Pichegru and Cadondal for the overthrow of Bonaparte. As the result of a famous lawsuit in which the latter tried by every means to influence the minds of the judges, Moreau was condemned in 1804 to two years' prison, which was altered to exile. He went to the United States, where he resided for some time in Delaware, and some time in New York and Philadelphia. Bonaparte presented his hôtel to General Bernadotte, the future Charles XIV of Sweden. Moreau rejoined the Allies in 1813, and died before Dresden,
Arc de Triomphe --- (VIII).
On the 14th July, 1919, General Pershing and an important detachment of American troops, specially composed for that occasion, participated in the Fêtes de la Victoire and marched through the Arc de Triomphe with the French troops and the other Allied contingents.
Arc de Triomphe. (Rue de 1') --- (XVII).
No. 21.--- George A. Lucas, who lived fifty years in Paris, resided long in this house. A celebrated collector, he predicted Millet's talent before he became well known, and for a small sum had bought many of his paintings; after Millet's death he authenticated some of his paintings. He died in Paris in March 1908, aged 85,
Archevêché (Quai de l') --- (IV).
During the Revolution (1789-1800) the hospital of the revolutionary tribunal was established in the palace of the Archbishop of Paris, which was formerly situated between the Cathedral and the small arm of the Seine, on the site of the present Square ; this palace had been built in 1697 by the Cardinal de Noailles, of the same family as Madame de la Fayette. It was in this hospital that Marshal Rochambeau, after having been previously imprisoned in the Conciergerie, had his old wounds tended ; he was left there, forgotten, until 9th Thermidor (July 27th, 1794). Judged the 10th October following, he was acquitted, and restored to liberty.
Archives (Rue des) --- (III).
No. 63.--- Hôtel where resided Marc René Marie de Voyer d'Argenson (1771-1842), in his youth aide-de-camp to La Fayette, whose political friend he remained during his entire lifetime.
Assas (Rue d') --- (VI),
No, 82. ---The statuary Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904), author of the enormous statue of "Liberty Lighting the World" died here in 1904; he had conceived the idea of this work in the course of a voyage to the United States after the war of 1870. The solemn handing over of the statue to the United States Minister Plenipotentiary at Paris, Levi P. Morton, took place July 4th, 1884. Taken to pieces and placed on board a United States vessel, the statue was inaugurated in New York the 28th October, 1886. A reduced copy of it may be seen in Paris on the Bridge of Grenelle.
The city of New York possesses several other works of Bartholdi, who is likewise the author of the group of Washington and La Fayette erected on the Place des Etats- Unis in Paris.
Auber (Rue) --- (IX),
The opening of this street caused the disappearance of, between the Rue des Mathurins and the Rue Boudreau, the Rue Trudon, in which Robert R. Livingston, United States Minister Plenipotentiary, lived in 1802 at No. 720 (Revolutionary numbering).
Auteuil (Rue d') --- (XVI).
No. 59. ---The house which at present bears this number has been built on the site of a house erected at the beginning of the reign of Louis XV, and burnt down in 1871 during the Commune. The celebrated painter, Quentin de la Tour, bought it in 1770, and resold it, in 1772, to Mme. Helvetius, who was called Our Lady of Auteuil (1719-1800), widow of the famous farmer-general and philosopher ; she had a celebrated salon there where she received all the philosophical society of the XVIIIth Century. Franklin frequented it assiduously and there met the most distinguished men in Paris: Cabanis (1757-1808), Diderot (1713-1784), the minister Turgot (1727-1781), Abbé Morellet (1727-1819), Chamfort (1741-1794), Baron d'Holbach (1723-1789), the poet Roucher (1745-1794), the Marquis Condorcet (1743- 1794), who were the intimate friends of Mme. Helvetius. In his memoirs Franklin has spoken lovingly of all these people who were full of kind attentions and of amiability for him ; he was so happy there that it is even said that he proposed marriage to Mme. Helvetius. He dined there every Saturday.
Mme. Helvetius died in this house in 1800, and was buried first in a little pavilion which had been built in the park by Cabanis; her body was later transported to the Cemetery of Auteuil.
From 1808 to 1814 the house was occupied by the physicist Rumford (1753-1814), who died in this house in 1814. After having lived in England and in Bavaria, where he entered the service of the Elector, Rumford arrived in Paris in October 1801 ; there he married the widow of Lavoisier, with whom it is said he got on badly, He became a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences for his works on the cohesion of bodies, the velocity of projectiles and the diffusion of liquids. He instituted in Paris the economical soups of his invention. He died at 59 Rue d'Auteuil at 9 o'clock in the evening on the 11th August, 1814; his friends, Benjamin Delessert and Parker, registered his death ; Cubier pronounced his funeral oraison January 9th, 1815.
Bac (Rue du) --- (VII).
No. 110. ---James McNeil Whistler (1834-1903) lived in this house from the autumn of 1892, at the time of his last stay in Paris.
Before a vocation which manifested itself as irrevocable, his father, a distinguished engineer, sent him, in 1855, to Paris, where he entered the studio of Gleyre, who, with Couture, was then considered one of the best masters ; he also became intimate with Degas and Fantin Latour, and there studied with George du Maurier of Punch and Trilby fame.
Whistler painted in a studio of the Boulevard des Batignolles the "White Girl" which was refused at the salon of 1863, then shown at the Salon of the Rejected. The work produced by Whistler at the various times he stayed in Paris is considerable, and was often provocative of incidents due to his difficult temper. Thus he had a celebrated altercation with General Rush B. Hawkins, charged with the section of American Art at the Universal Exhibition of 1889; the General having requested him to remove ten of his paintings disapproved by the jury, Whistler took them all away and sent a chosen number of them to the English section.
In 1892 Whistler came to live at 110 Rue du Bac. His landlord had caused to be inserted in the lease a clause according to which he could introduce no models into his house; which, however, did not prevent Whistler from bringing children there, who one day were found walking about naked. At the lawsuit, which was brought by his landlord, he answered that they were not models, but children who were bringing their clothes to be washed. The changeable character of Whistler which caused him to travel frequently between London and Paris made him occupy many lodgings in the quarter of the Rue du Bac, Sometimes when he could not sleep and was pursued by an idea he would rise and go and see his friend Alexander, at the Parc Monceau,
In 1898 Whistler came fairly often to an academy of painting which was opened in his name at No. 6 of the Passage Stanislas, in the Rue Notre Dame des Champs.
His sister-in-law, Miss Rosalind Birnie Philip, gave to the Cabinet des Estampes of the National Library a complete collection of the engraved works of Whistler. One of his most considered works, the portrait of his mother, which he called an "arrangement in grey and black," is shown at the Musée du Luxembourg. In 1905 an exhibition of his works was organized at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, as he had requested a short time before his death. Whistler had obtained in 1889 a gold medal at the Salon, and had been made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.
Nos. 118-120. ---Hôtel of Clermont Tonnerre where Châteaubriand died in 1848. In July 1791 he had been twice received by Washington at Philadelphia, and he had dined with him in his house in High Street, Châteaubriand found again in him, as he had imagined he would in this modern Cincinnatus, "the simplicity of the old Roman." This meeting made a deep impression on him, and, thirty-six years later caused him to write, when speaking of Washington, "there is virtue in the look of a great man."
Bagneux (Rue de) --- (VI).
No. 3. ---It is here that the American sculptor Augustus St. Gaudens (1848-1907) had his studio from the year 1897. He came to Europe at the age of eighteen, in 1856, and passed nearly fourteen years in Rome and in Paris; he followed the classes of Jouffroy at the Ecole des Beaux Arts at Paris, where he knew Dalou and had as fellow pupils George de Forest Brush, Proctor, Gamier, Zorn and Bion. From 1880 to 1897 he worked in New York, then returned to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Whistler. He had a studio first in the Faubourg St-Honoré; he then lived at the Boulevard Pereire; then, after 1897 he worked at the Rue de Bagneux. John W. Alexander, John Sargent, Helleu went there frequently. The first work of St. Gaudens in Paris was a group of kneeling angels destined for the Church of St. Thomas of New York; it is said that when he had completed it he illuminated it with 190 candles so as to get an idea of the effect of this group when it should be thus lit in the church. He also executed in Paris the models of the decoration for the Boston Library, the monument to Robert Louis Stevenson, that of Colonel Robert G. Shaw, destined for Edinburgh, and there finished almost entirely the equestrian statue of General Sherman for the entrance of Central Park, New York, which was shown at the Salon of 1900; he obtained a gold medal and was decorated with the Legion of Honour by the French government, which bought for the Luxembourg Museum his "Amor Caritas" and the collection of his medallions. Frederic MacMonnies was one of his most brilliant pupils. St. Gaudens left Paris in July 1900.
Banque (Rue de la) --- (II),
No. 5. ---Admiral de Bourgainville, who took part in the American War, died in this house in 1811. (Inscription.)
Bastille (Place de la) --- (IV).
When the Bastille was taken, the 14th of July 1789, La Fayette carried away the key of the great entrance gate and sent it as a souvenir to Washington, by Thomas Paine when he came put of prison. This key is preserved at Mount Vernon in the entrance hall. The great entrance gate of the celebrated fortress was at the western side, almost at the beginning of the Rue St. Antoine; the plan of the Bastille is indicated on the ground of the Place and on the sidewalks by a special disposition of the paving stones. La Fayette accompanied his gift with a letter in which he said to Washington: "I present you with the principal key of this fortress of despotism. It is a tribute which I owe to you, as from a son to his adoptive father, as aide-de-camp to my general, as missionary of Liberty to his patriarch" (17th March 1790). On his side Paine wrote this, in a letter dated from London: "I am happy to be the person chosen to bear the first trophies of despotism and the first ripe fruits of American principles brought into Europe. American principles have opened the Bastille, about that there can be no doubt, and, consequently, the keys are going where they ought to go."
Beaujon (Rue) --- (VIII).
No. 13. ---Was inhabited from 1855 to 1859 by John J. Mason, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States.
Beaumarchais (Boulevard) --- (XI).
Nos. 2-20. ---Thus called since 1830 in remembetance of the celebrated writer who owned a hôtel and a superb garden, the site of which is at present occupied by numbers 2 to 20, at the commencement of the boulevard near the Place de la Bastille.
Caron de Beaumarchais (1732-1799), to whom a statue has been erected opposite No. 11 of the Rue St-Antoine, was the most complete type of those philosopher businessmen such as were to be found in the XVIIIth Century. A celebrated writer, he was also financier, shipbuilder, contractor, and secret-service agent ; he was one of the first to see that the war between the American Colonies and England offered the greatest advantages to French trade and he resolved to draw France into that channel. From 1775, being in England where he was charged by the King with secret business to the Chevalier d'Eon, he entered into relations with Arthur Lee and the American agents. He sided passionately with the Insurgents, who could have had no better auxiliary and gained public opinion for their cause while awaiting the opinion of the French government.
When Franklin arrived in Paris for the purpose of obtaining recognition of the independence of the United States by the French court, Beaumarchais lent him the aid of his pen, and, for two years, he unremittingly compiled secret documents, submitted to Louis XVI, and favourable to America. Franklin knew marvellously well how to make use of every willing person who thus offered himself to him, and his efforts, united to those of La Fayette, resulted in the signature of the Treaty of Alliance between France and the United States the 6th February 1778.
Beauvau (Place) --- (VIII).
No. 96. Ministère de I'lntérieur.---Here is settled the headquarters of the "Carnegie Heroes Fund of France" and it is here that the committee, charged with its administration, meets.
Andrew Carnegie, by an act of February 9th, 1909, included France in the Heroes Fund in reward for the civil acts of heroism performed on French territory; his donation of one million dollars was accepted by the French Government by a decree of July 23rd, 1909.
Berri (Rue de) --- (VIII).
No. 2. ---This house has been built on the site of the Pavilion of Langeac where Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) lived from 1784 to 1789 during the whole time of his residence in Paris ; this hôtel possessed a large garden which reached to the Champs-Elysées.
In 1784 the United States Congress resolved to send another minister to Europe who, in concert with John Adams and Franklin, would be charged with the negotiation. of commercial treaties with the foreign powers. Jefferson, already twice designated for a mission in Europe, was naturally chosen. He eagerly accepted, and arrived in Paris the 6th August 1784.
At the commencement of 1785 Jefferson was unanimously named by Congress minister to the Court of Versailles in place of Franklin, who was returning to the United States. Referring to this, he is supposed to have said of Franklin : "That he is one of those men whom one succeeds but whom one does not replace." He employed himself especially about commercial negotiations, and about enforcing the treaties already concluded. What he preferred above all, above his travels in Holland and Italy, was his residence in Paris. His correspondence shows how varied were his occupations there. He was invited by the Committee of the National Assembly, charged to elaborate the Constitution to assist at its meetings, but he did not accept He saw the opening of the Revolution in 1789; towards the end of the year he took advantage of a leave of absence to return to America, for which he embarked on October 8th. But in the United States he filled the position of Secretary of State, and so returned no more to France. The painter, John Trumbull, resided at his house during his stay in Paris. William Short, chargé d'affaires, also lived in this house in 1791 after Thomas Jefferson.
Berthier (Boulevard) --- (XVII).
No. 41. ---Private residence which was long inhabited by the great American painter, John Sargent. In 1874, when he was the pupil of Carolus Duran, Sargent lived near the studio of the latter in the Rue Notre Dame des Champs ; he spent ftearly twenty years in Paris before fixing his abode in London, and it was his portraits of Parisian personages, such as that of Pailleron and of Mme. Gauthereau, which were the beginning of his reputation as a portrait painter. The portrait of Mme. Gauthereau, catalogued as Mme. X, now hangs in the Metropolitan Museum, New York.
Bois de Boulogne (Avenue du) --- (XVI),
No. 41. ---A house erected in 1907 on the site of the hôtel of Doctor Evans, the remembrance of whom remains linked with the flight of the Empress Eugenie in 1870, after the fall of the Second Empire.
Evans, born about 1820 in Philadelphia, established himself in Paris in November 1847, having been called to France by his compatriot, Cyrus J. Brewster. He speedily obtained a European reputation there, liking to recall, also, that it was a French doctor who was one of the initiators of the art of dentistry into the United States (Doctor Gardette, who had established himself in Philadelphia at the end of the XVIIIth Century). At the Exhibition of 1867 Evans received the Grand Prize of Honour for the exhibition of the Sanitary Commission of the United States which he had organised. He gave some very brilliant entertainments in this hôtel, especially in January 1869 in honour of the American, Anson Burlingame, Chinese Ambassador to Paris.
During the war Evans, assisted by Dr. Swinburne, head physician, and by Emile and William Brewer, established an ambulance in the Avenue du Bois (then called Avenue de I'lmperatrice), at the corner of the Rue de Villejust. The American Ambulance consisted merely of tents and served especially as a model for that established by the Engineers near the Luxembourg. He personally spent more than 1,200,000 francs on this ambulance, and on the help he bestowed on the French prisoners in Germany and in Switzerland; accordingly, in 1872 the French Government created him Commander of the Legion of Honour.
But Evans, through whom Napoléon III made the acquaintance of the Empress when she was only Eugénie de Montijo, was especially called on, in an unexpected manner, to help the latter to fly from Paris on September 4th, 1870, directly the proclamation of the Republic was known at the Tuileries. Following the advice of the Ambassadors of Austria and of Italy, the Empress decided to leave France; she left the Louvre by the Gate of the Place St.- Germain 1'Auxerrois, with one of the ladies of her suite, was separated there from the Ambassadors, and went to the house of some friends whom she was unable to find ; she then desired to be taken to Evans, and asked him how she could get to England. In accordance with the views of his fellow-countryman, Dr. Crane, who thirty-five years later published his very detailed memoirs, Evans sheltered the Empress that night in the room of Mrs. Evans, who was away from home, and on the morning of the 5th succeeded in getting her through the Porte Maillot, which was guarded by sentries of the National Guard. On the evening of the 6th, after having stopped at Mantes, the carriage arrived at Deauyille, where Mrs. Evans received the Empress at the Casino Hôtel. Evans arranged her departure that same evening, and, after many difficulties, it took place during the night on Sir N. Burgoyne's yacht; after a dangerous crossing the imperial fugitive reached Ryde, gained Hastings, then, Chiselhurst, which Evans had hired for her.
Evans, in 1892, left the hôtel of the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne and went to live in the house which he had had built at Nos. 43-45 in the Rue de la Pompe. At his death in 1897 he bequeathed his hôtel to the city of Philadelphia, which in 1900 let it to the French Government as the Palais des Souverains.
It must be recollected that it was Evans who had conceived the idea of the Avenue du Bois.
No. 75. ---Here was installed the United States Legation to Paris in 1870-1871.
E. B. Washburne, ambassador to Paris from 1869 to 1877, lived here, and remained here during the siege of Paris and during the Commune; the German Government had confided to him the interests of the Germans living in Paris, and Washburne secured their departure. This house was showered with shells during the siege; it was invaded by the Communards, but it was successfully preserved against fire. On the 22nd March, 1871, about fifty Americans gathered there to offer a banquet to General Sheridan, who had arrived some days previously in Paris, and who had followed the military operations from the German side.
Washburne's intervention in favour of Mgr. Darboy, archbishop of Paris during the Commune, will be recalled later on (see Mazas). He had a most active part to play during the whole of the war, busying himself particularly with the American colony, of which the greater part had left Paris: 48 Americans were still there at the beginning of November 1870. On November 24th, twenty Americans assembled for the Thanksgiving Day dinner. The turkeys eaten on that occasion cost 55 francs each! On the occasion of the burning of Chicago a reunion of the Americans of Paris took place at the Washington Club, and a sum of $6,000 was got together.
The difficulty of getting food during the siege caused a certain number of them to found the Hungry Club and to dine together at the same restaurant. Nathan Sheppard, the author of "Shut Up in Paris," was one of their number.
Among the Americans to be found in Paris during this troubled period were Professor Simon Newcombe, an astronomer of repute, who had come to visit the great French savant Leverrier; Mrs. Key Blunt of Baltimore, and Mr., Acosta, who both espoused the cause of Mgr. Darboy, whom the former succeeded in visiting in the prison of La Roquette ; Mrs: Charles J. Moulton of Boston, and Mr. Joseph Karrick Riggs of Washington, who were charged by Washburne to distribute the aid sent from the United States during the armistice. Only one American of Paris lost his life during the siege of 1870 : Swager, of Louisville, Kentucky, a pupil at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, who had his leg broken by a shell and died as a result of his wound.
Bonaparte (Rue) --- (VI).
No. 14. ---Ecole Nationale des Beaux Arts. Among the many American artists who have come to Paris, the greater number have received tuition at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and all of them have more or less frequented it and have left there some souvenir of themselves,
No. 80. ---The part of the Rue Bonaparte comprised between the Place Saint-Sulpice and the Rue de Vaugirard was called Rue du Pot-de-fer in the XVIIIth Century. It was there, in the old novitiate of the Jesuits, that the two most important masonic lodges of Paris held their assizes: that of the Grand Orient, protected by the Duc d'Orléans, and that of the Neuf Sœurs, presided over by the Comte d'Artois (afterwards Charles X).
No. 80 of the Rue Bonaparte now occupies the site of the Lodge of the Neuf Sœurs : this lodge, of which Franklin was probably a member from the time of its origin, was founded in 1776 with the aid of Mme. Helvetius. It was there that on the 28th November, 1778, he assisted at the masonic apotheosis of Voltaire. Franklin was elected Venerable of the lodge on the 21st May, 1779; he remained so for two years, during which time, in the Spring of 1780, Paul Jones became a member. His demand dated from the 16th August 1779.
On this occasion the latter engaged the sculptor Houdon, likewise a member of the lodge, to make a bust of the intrepid sailor. On Monday the 1st May 1780 a great feast was given there in honor of Paul Jones. La Dixmerie addressed a speech to him which terminated with this quatrain :
Jones, fertile in resources during the battle
Behaves towards his enemies
As a skilled coquette behaves to us:
You fancy you will catch him and you are caught
Six months after the departure of Franklin for America, at the end of the year 1785, the lodge instituted in his honour a double competition ; proposing a prize of eloquence for a prose eulogy of B. Franklin, "which should take at least a half an hour to read" and an Art prize for an "allegorical drawing, two feet high and a foot and a half wide, representing the services rendered by B. Franklin to Science and to American liberty." Each prize was worth 600 francs.
William Short, Chargé d'Affaires after the departure of Thomas Jefferson, lived in 1792 in that part of the Rue Bonaparte comprised between the Quai and the Rue Jacob, and then called Rue des Petits Augustins.
Bondy (Rue de) --- (X).
No. 17. --- The Theatre of the Renaissance beside the Rue Bondy is built on the site of a house inhabited by Admiral Bourgainville from 1805 to 1810.
Bourbon. (Quai de) --- (IV).
No. 53. ---The American poet Stuart Merrill, renowned for his French verse, lived many years in this house,
Bourgogne (Rue de) --- (VII).
No. 10. ---Site of the ancient Hôtel Dillon which extended to No. 39 of the Rue Saint-Dominique. Two Dillons took part in the American war : one of them was second in command of the Legion of Lauzun.
Bourse (Place de la) --- (II).
No. 13.--- Office of the Associated Press, established in Paris the 1st December 1899.
Braque (Rue de)--- (III).
No. 7. ---Little Hôtel de Mesmes, occupied in 1776 by Count Charles de Vergennes, who was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1776 to 1783. His name remains attached not only to the American War and to the Treaty of Versailles, but also to the residence of Franklin in Paris. It is said that on the occasion of their first interview the ambassadors' introducer having retired, the two statesmen solemnly bowed to one another. Vergennes made an amiable motion to Franklin, inviting him to be seated, then waited<. Franklin accepted but said nothing, wishing, perhaps, to test the gravity of Vergennes, who, drawing out his snuff box, offered it to Franklin; the latter took a pinch of snuff, bowed and coughed ; Vergennes did likewise. Shortly afterwards Franklin rose, Vergennes also; they bowed and Franklin withdrew.
The Treaty of Alliance between France and the United States was signed here the 6th February, 1778, by the Secretary of the Council, Gerard de Rayneval, for France, and for the United States by B. Franklin, G. Deane, and A. Lee.
Buffon (Rue de) ---(V).
No. 61. ---Headquarters of the Société des Américanistes de Paris.
This international Society, founded in 1893, has for its aim the study of America since the most remote times to the present day: the actual President (1920), Mr. Henry Vignaud, is one of the notable members of the American Colony in Paris. The Society possesses a library liberally supplied with American publications, thanks to the generosity of the scientific establishments of the United States. Among the founders who have given donations are the Duc de Loubat, James H. Hyde, W. K. Vanderbilt. James Gordon Bennett was one of its members.
Cambon (Rue) --- (II).
No. 53. ---The Paris offices of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle are installed here: an exhibition of American advertising was organised here in November 1917.
Capucines (Boulevard des) --- (II and IX).
No. 24. ---United States College at Paris. The offices of this important institution have been situated in this building since the beginning of 1919; but several of its members already formed part of the Franco-American Committee, created in 1895, which was the first to interest itself in the intellectual interchange between the United States and France, an interchange pursued since then in many different ways. Since 1916 the College has become an incorporation, whose founders were Coleman du Pont, of New York; Edwin Farnham Greene, of Boston, and Paul Lebaudy, of Paris. It has been placed in France, since its founding, under the high patronage of President Poincaré, of Georges Clemenceau, and of several ministers.
The aim of the College is to constitute a clearing house for the exchange, discussion and dissemination of ideas in all the various branches of education, science and learning, and finally, to constitute a sort of administrative home for American students in France. For this it has organised:
First. ---An information bureau where may be found a complete list of the teaching faculties of France, with the names of all the well-known savants willing to accept graduate students in their classes, clinics and laboratories.
Second. ---A grouping of professors of the French faculties who might serve as deans to the American students, among whom a certain number have been sent to the United States, as the Professors Letulle, Vidal, Cestre, etc.
Third. ---A programme of work, such as translation into French of the best scientific American works, and vice versa.
The College possesses in America an equivalent organisation, with its central seat in New York, and, in the various States, secondary centers in touch with the American colleges and universities.
Like the old colleges which grouped around the Sorbonne of the Middle Ages students coming from foreign countries, the United States College in Paris ought to be, in this 20
The direction of the College is assured in Paris in 1920 by Ernest H. Lines, Paul Lebaudy, Caroline B. K. Levy, vice-presidents; Charles F. Beach, secretary.
Carrousel (Place du) --- (I)
In the grand carrousel held here on June 5th and 6th 1662 (from which this square took its name), and whose splendour surpassed anything of the kind heretofore ever seen, the quadrilles represented the different nations. The king, Louis XIV, led the quadrille of the Romans; Monsieur, his brother, the quadrille of the Persians ; the Prince de Condé the Turks; the Duke d'Enghein the Indians, and finally the Duke de Guise led a fifth representing the American savages.
Cassette (Rue) --- (VI),
No. 20. ---Here died, on March 7th, 1809, at the age of 56, the celebrated aeronaut Blanchard, who was accompanied in 1785, in his famous crossing of the Straits of Dover, by an American, Dr. Jefferies. Blanchard had become acquainted in London with the latter who was much interested in ballooning, and made with him, at the cost of 100 guineas, a flight from London to Kent. They next formed the project of crossing the Straits of Dover, which they carried into execution the 7th January, 1785, in a Montgolfière, at one o'clock in the afternoon; at 3:45, having been obliged to throw overboard, one after the other, their ballast, their coats, food, anchor and ropes, they landed in the forest of Guines near Calais. They were enthusiastically received in this town January 8th. They were offered a banquet, and a commemorative stone column was inaugurated in their presence on January 7th, 1786. Blanchard and Dr. Jefferies became the heroes of the day in Paris, and were presented at Versailles to Louis XVI, who complimented them. The Minister, de Breteuil, gave a dinner there in their honour. Dr. Jefferies has retraced the remembrance of these receptions in his memoirs: "A Narration of the Two Aerial Voyages of Dr. Jefferies with Mons. Blanchard" ---London, 1786; a frontispiece portrait represents him beside his thermometer.
After six weeks of triumphal receptions in Paris Jefferies returned, the 21st February, to England, where his first visit was to the cliffs of Dover from whence he had set out in the balloon. He was enthusiastically welcomed in London by his friends, and returned soon after to Boston.
Caumartin (Rue de) --- (IX).
No. 65.--- Robert Milligan MacLane, of Wilmington, who was Ambassador to Paris from 1884 to 1889, was educated in Paris at the College de Bourbon, now the Lycée Condorcet. He was received by La Fayette, who, at the time of the Revolution of 1830, brought him with him to the Hôtel de Ville to assist at the reception of the Duc d'Orléans, July 29th, and next day at the Palais-Royal, MacLane returned to Paris in 1841 ; he then lived in the Faubourg St-Honoré. He resided again at Paris in 1853 and in 1893 ; when he gave up his post as Ambassador he passed his last years there, and died there on the 16th April 1898.
Chaillot (Rue de) --- (XVI).
No. 5. ---The offices of the United States Embassy have been established here since 1914.
The Ministers Plenipotentiary and the Ambassadors of the United States, to Paris, have been since the beginning :
1776-1785: Benjamin Franklin.
1785-1789: Thomas Jefferson.
1790-1792 : William Short, Chargé d'Affaires.
1792-1794: Gouverneur Morris.
1794-1797: James Monroe.
1798: Mission: Charles Pinckney, John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry.
1799-1801: Mission: Oliver Ellsworth, Williams Vans Murray and William R. Davey.
1801-1804: Robert R, Livingston,
1804: James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston (Louisiana purchase.)
1804-1810: John Armstrong.
1810-1811: Jonathan Russell, Chargé d'Affaires.
1810-1812: Joel Barlow.
1813-1815: William H. Crawford.
1815-1823: Albert Gallatin.
1817-1818 and 1823-1824: Henry Jackson, Chargé d'Affaires; Daniel Sheldon, Chargé d'Affaires.
1823-1829: James Brown.
1829: John Adams Smith, Chargé d'Affaires.
1829-1832 : William C. , Rives.
1832-1833 : Nathaniel Niles, Chargé d'Affaires.
1833: Leavitt Harris, Chargé d'Affaires.
1833-1835 : Edward Livingston.
1834-1835 : Thomas P. Barton, Chargé d'Affaires.
1836-1842 : Lewis Cass.
1837: Charles Anderson, Chargé d'Affaires.
1842-1844: Henry Ledyard, Chargé d'Affaires.
1844-1846: William R. King.
1845-1847: J. L. Martin, Chargé d'Affaires.
1847-1849: Richard Rush.
1849-1853 : William C. Rives.
1853-1854: Henry Shelton Sandford, Chargé d'Affaires.
1853-1859: John Y. Mason.
1855: Donn Piatt, Chargé d'Affaires.
1859-1860: William R. Calhoun, Chargé d'Affaires,
1860-1861: Charles J, Faulkner
1861-1864: William L, Dayton.
1865-1866 : John Bigelow.
1866: John Hay, Chargé d'Affaires.
1866-1869: John A. Dix.
1869-1877: Elihu B. Washburne.
1877-1881 : Edward F. Noyes.
1881-1884: Levi P. Morton.
1884-1889 : Robert M. MacLane.
1889-1892: Whitelaw Reid.
1892-1893: Thomas Jefferson Coolidge.
1893-1897 : James B, Eustis, Ambassador,
1897-1905: Horace Porter.
1905-1907: Robert McCorrnick.
1907-1909: Henry White.
1909-1912: Robert Bacon.
1912-1914: Myron T. Herrick.
1914-1919: William G. Sharp.
1919: Hugh C Wallace.
No. 75. ---About No. 75 (formerly No. 21), lived Bailly (1736-1793), member of the Academy of Sciences, who played an important part at the beginning of the Revolution, and who, in 1784, was, along with Franklin, one of the commission charged to control the experiments of magnetism of Mesmer.
It is said that Franklin, going to see him in the Rue de Chaillot, remained two hours with him without uttering a word ! This silence had throughout Paris a great success, and it was more spoken about than the most happy repartee would have been. This was a proceeding often employed by Franklin, who guessed, in the midst of the wits of the close of the XVIIIth Century, that the way to outshine them all was to hold his tongue.
No. 95. ---The Offices of the American Legation were established here from 1867 to 1886.
Champ de Mars --- (VII),
Most of the big international exhibitions which have been held in Paris during the 19th Century took place on the Champ de Mars. The share which the United States has had in these exhibitions has always been more and more considerable.
At the exhibition of 1867 about one thousand exhibitors from the United States could be reckoned out of a total of 52,200,
At the exhibition of 1878, which occupied not only the Champ de Mars, but also the Trocadéro, the Quai d'Orsay as far as the Alma and a part of the Esplanade des Invalides, the United States had 1,203 exhibitors out of 52,835; 13,873 American visitors were counted.
At the exhibition of 1889, which covered the same space as the former one, with the whole of the Esplanade des Invalides and part of the Champs-Elysées, out of 61,722 exhibitors there were about 7,500 from the United States ; more than 56,000 Americans visited it.
Finally at the exhibition of 1900 the participation of the United States rose to 7,610 exhibitors out of a total of 83,047.
The former Galérie des Machines, built for the exhibition of 1889 at the extremity of the Champ de Mars, near to the Ecole Militaire, sheltered, during the winter of 1901-1902, Barnum and Bailey's Show when it was touring Europe.
In 1905 Buffalo Bill gave a series of shows on the vacant ground of the Champ de Mars not then built upon,
Champs-Elysées (Avenue des) --- (VIII).
The Circus of the Champs-Elysées, demolished in 1902, which was near the Avenue Gabriel, close to the Théâtre Marigny, exhibited in 1873 to the curious of Paris, the Misses Millie-Christine, a sort of Siamese twin sisters, with two heads, four arms and four legs, but with only one spine, who were born at Columbus (Ohio) : they gave a dinner at the Grand Hôtel, the 11th January, 1874, to the principal members of the Press.
The Grand and the Petit Palais now occupy, since 1900, the site of the Palais de l'Industrie which had been built for the Exhibition of 1855, and in which was held, in 1881, an International Exhibition of Electricity, The great American inventor, Thomas A. Edison, sent the complete collection of his inventions to it, among which that of the phonograph had already been presented to the Académie des Sciences of Paris at its meeting of March 11th, 1878 ; it was there the object of a new communication of Colonel Gouraud, the 23d April, 1889. Thomas Edison that year visited the Universal Exhibition.
No. 25. ---Travellers Club. ---This club numbers among its members a few Americans. It occupies, since 1904, the former Hôtel de la Païva, built in 1856 to 1866; the monumental door is the work of the sculptor Legrain, and the painter, Paul Baudry, executed some of the interior decorations.
No. 82. ---Committee and Review of France-America. Founded at the end of 1909 on the initiative and under the direction of M. Gabriel Hanotaux of the French Academy, the Committee France-America has as its object: (1) To work for the development of all kinds of relations between France and the two Americas. (2) To publish a review which will inform its adherents reciprocally on questions concerning America and France which might interest them. (3) To encourage all work and all action which will defend French interests in America, and make America known in France, or France in America.
The Review France-America appeared for the first time in January 1910; this monthly publication admits supplementary reviews : France-United States, France-Canada, and France-Latin America.
The Committee France-America seeks to develop direct personal relations between the elite of France and America; thus in May 1912 it sent to the United States and Canada the delegation of the Champlain tricentenary. It welcomes American people of note who come to Paris ; it has received, namely, Robert Bacon, Presidents Lowell of Harvard, Butler of Columbia, Finley of New York, etc. A special section of France-United States has organised in Paris lectures on the relations of the United States and France.
The committee proposes to organise in Paris an American House destined to receive and to inform Americans. During the war it organised ceremonies in honour of the United States and of their joining the war.
A like committee, France-America-Society, was created in New York in 1912; its headquarters is at the French House, No. 411 West 117 Street.
No. 103. ---Formerly Palace Hôtel of the Champs-Elysées, which was occupied during the war by the services of the American Army.
No. 104. Was inhabited by James Gordon Bennett, owner of the New York Herald (1841-1918), of which he founded the Paris edition. He passed part of his life in Paris. He was the donor of the Cup of the Automobile Club which bears his name.
Châteaudun (Rue de) --- (IX).
No. 55. ---The Consulate General of the United States was located here between 1875 and 1880.
Cherche-Midi (Rue du) --- (VI).
No. 40. ---It was here that, at the beginning of March 1780, happened to be ill, and on the point of departure for his Castle of Rochambeau, in the Vendômois, Lieutenant General Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau (1725-1807), then fifty-five years of age and seven years older than Washington. The post horses were ready for the road when he received, during the night, as he tells us in his memoirs, "a courier who brought him the order to go to Versailles to receive the orders of His Majesty," He received confirmation of the news that to him was to be confided the command of the troops sent to help the United States.
Rochambeau had begun his military career at sixteen years of age under Marshal Saxe, like Washington, made colonel at twenty-two years of age, he had received at Laufeldt two serious wounds, and had taken part in the principal battles of the Seven Years' War; in his campaigns he had had as adversaries, by a curious coincidence, Lord Cornwallis and Clinton. Married very young, in 1749, to Mademoiselle Telles d'Acosta, he brought with him to America his young son, an officer at fourteen years of age, who returned later on to America to take part in the campaigns of Martinique and of S. Dominique, and died, a general, at Leipzig, in 1813.
Rochambeau superintended in Paris, with the greatest care; the preparations for the departure of the troops with which he embarked at Brest, 2d May, 1780. The importance of the part which he played in the United States in the military operations and the taking of Yorktown is too well known to mention it here. He returned to France at the beginning of January 1783, and there found a magnificent welcome: he received the blue ribbon of the St. Esprit, the government of Picardy, and, some years later, the baton of Marshal of France. He continued to maintain close correspondence with Washington, describing in particular the departure of Franklin, receiving from him letters of recommendation about American travellers, such as Gouveneur Morris and Joel Barlow. Rochambeau commanded in 1791 the Army of the North, but being unable to re-establish discipline in it, he resigned the year following. Shut up during the Terror in the Prison of the Conciergerie, he was condemned to death by the revolutionary tribunal. He was about to step into the cart of the condemned when the executioner, seeing it full, called to him: "Wait a bit, old marshal! Your turn will come later on. . . ." The fall of Robespierre in July 1795 saved him.
Rochambeau lived till 1807, spending his time between Paris and his Château of Rochambeau, where he died at the age of 82. He is buried in the little Cemetery of Thore, in a black and white marble sepulchre, now shaded by trees which have sprung from cuttings of those planted by Washington at Mount Vernon.
At No. 40 of the Rue du Cherche-Midi his very fine dwelling still exists, the gardens alone having been destroyed.
Rochambeau received for some time in his home, after his return from the United States, his former aide-de-camp, Louis, Baron de Closen, captain in the regiment of Royal Deux Ponts, who has left a diary which is very complete and full of picturesque details of his four years stay in America.
When the French branch of the Society of Cincinnati was organised in Paris it was in this house of Rochambeau's that were held the first gatherings of officers belonging to the French Army, particularly the Assembly General of 7th January, 1784, which subscribed 60,000 francs for the society in the United States ; those of French officers holding their commissions from Congress holding theirs at La Fayette's house, rue de Lille,
Cheverus (Rue) --- (IX).
Named in honour of Jean Lefébure de Cheverus, a French prelate (1768-1836) who emigrated in 1792 first to England then to the United States, where he fulfilled perilous missions among the Red Indian tribes. He was named Bishop of Boston in 1810, then returned to France to fill the See of Montauban in 1823, and that of Bordeaux in 1826. He received the cardinal's hat shortly before his death.
Chevreuse (Rue de) --- (VI),
No. 4. ---Headquarters of the American Red Cross. The activity of the American Red Cross in France has been considerable since the entry into the war of the United States. It began on the 12th July, 1917, on which date twelve delegates of the A. R. C. arrived in France at the same time as General Pershing. The day of the signature of the Armistice more than 6,000 overseas workers had been drafted into the French service. This work has been directed in France by Mr. Henry P. Davison, president of the War Committee for Europe, and by Colonel Gibson, commissioner for France.
The activity of the A. R. C. during the war was turned principally from the French canteens, whose number decreased considerably, thanks to it, to the families of French soldiers in want, and to their children, for whom thirty hospitals or dispensaries were created; in Paris particularly more than 5,000 homeless people were sheltered, thanks to it. Since the Armistice the A. R. C., while continuing to interest itself in the children, has occupied itself with the reconstruction of the devastated regions of the North of France, where it united its efforts with those of the French Government and of the French Societies of Aid; it has also occupied itself with the fight against tuberculosis, for which it has already spent more than eight million francs, with the useful help of the Rockefeller Commission against tuberculosis in France; visits of propaganda and special exhibitions have been made, especially in Paris.
Towards the end of September 1918 the number of beds in the sanitary formations of the A. R. C. were more than 7,000. At the time of the signature of the Armistice the amount of subscriptions had attained 500 millions of francs; the contributions in kind amounted to more than 400 millions of francs. In Paris alone the A. R. C created during the war a considerable number of organisations of all kinds, among others 11 canteens, 12 hôtels, as likewise work-centres, workshops for the mutilated, offices for refugees, etc. It has also started a Ladies' Club at No. 8 Rue Cambon, and an Officers' Club at No. 4 Avenue Gabriel, in the former Hôtel de la Tremouille. The central offices, which were for a long time at the Hôtel Regina, Rue de Rivoli, have been transferred to the Rue de Chevreuse since the Summer of 1919.
Claude-Lorrain (Rue) --- (XVI).
No. 57. ---The Cemetery of Auteuil founded in 1800 and enlarged in 1807 and 1847. It contains in particular the tombs of Mme. Helvetius, first buried in her garden, then transported to this cemetery in 1807, and of the Comte de Rumford, who died the 11th August, 1814, and not 21st August, as is found on his tomb. This was destroyed in 1871 by a shell from Mont Valerien during the Commune. It was restored in 1876 by the University of Harvard (Academy of Arts and Sciences) and in particular by John Karrick Riggs, of Washington, who served in the American Ambulance during the siege of Paris in 1870. Numerous Americans still come in pilgrimage to his tomb.
Clauzel (Rue) --- (IX).
This street, made in 1830, has received the name of the Comte Bertrand de Clauzel (1772-1842), who made himself famous in America under the orders of Rochambeau. He died Marshal of France.
Colisée (Rue du) --- (VIII).
No. 39. ---Library and Musée de la Guerre (founded with the Henri Leblanc Collections).
The English language section of the Bibliothèque et Musée de la Gueirre contains an extensive collection of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and miscellaneous publications dealing with the World War and its influence on the life of the nations. American authors and organisations have generally responded to the requests for documents and have donated many works of technical or general interest. On the other hand the United States Government has been most liberal in its support. The library has been placed on the mailing list of all official publications, and is in active correspondence with the various administrative bodies. The Paris Branch of the American Library Association has bequeathed some two hundred books to the Library. It is the ambition of the "Bibliothèque de la Guerre" to provide unique opportunities for research by placing at the disposal of students and historians all the available material bearing on the great conflict.
The Musée is an object lesson on the war. Reminiscences of an artistic character, pictorial associations and curios illustrate its different forms and phases, and complete the information collected at the Bibliothèque. The American Government gave many recruiting and loan posters. It has been particularly generous in supplying complete sets, as also have been the different organizations for relief and war work, beginning with the Red Cross, whose activity in France particularly remains recorded in a monumental collection of photographs.
Concorde (Place de la) --- (VIII).
No. 6. ---Hôtel occupied by the Automobile Club of France to which many Americans belong.
In 1900 James Gordon Bennett, in founding the Cup which bears his name, charged the Automobile Club of France to establish the rules of the automobile race for which it is the recompense, and, should it be so arranged, to be the depositary of it.
It was in the Salle des Fêtes of this club that a great banquet was given the 5th November, 1908, by the Aero Club de France in honour of Wilbur Wright, to whom were solemnly delivered the gold medal of the Aero Club awarded to his brother and to him, as well as the Medal of the Académie des Sports. Cortland Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, was present at this banquet.
No. 2. ---Ministère de la Marine (former storehouse of Crown property). Captain Read, commander of the NC-4, the hero of the crossing of the Atlantic, was here received, 4th June, 1919, by the Naval Minister Georges Leyges, with Captain J. Towers, Commander of the NC-3; Captain Bellinger, Commander of the NC-1, and Rear Admiral Plunkett.
No. 10. ---Hôtel de Crillon, built in 1775, which has served as the residence of the American Delegation to the Peace Conference. General Pershing stopped there on his arrival in Paris in 1917, before settling at 73 Rue de Varenne.
The 4th of July 1918 American Independence Day was celebrated on the Place de la Concorde by a military review, in which the American troops and flags of the French regiments formed by the regiments of the XVIIIth Century, and which made the American campaign under Rochambeau, took part.
Condé (Rue de) --- (VI)
About 1777 a public subscription, the first that had ever taken place in France, was opened at an attorney's of the Rue de Condé for the execution of an engraving which was in honour of Franklin. "One can there see," said the prospectus published by the Journal de Paris, "Mr. Franklin freeing America ; he is embracing the Statue of Liberty, and Minerva is covering the wise lawgiver with her shield; Prudence and Courage are overthrowing their enemy (that is to say England), who, in her fall, drops down a Neptune whose trident is broken. To the right of Liberty, Agriculture, Commerce and the Arts applaud this revolution."
Constantine (Rue de) --- (VII).No. 31. ---Hôtel of the Duc de La Rochefoucauld, where the Staff of General Pershing was established in June 1917.
Conti (Quai de) --- (VI).
No. 11. ---Hôtel de la Monnaie (The Parisian Mint).
The Musée de la Monnaie contains a certain number of coins and medals of interest to the United States.
1. Grande Salle. Among the glass cases arranged in the hall one of them contains souvenirs in the shape of Franco-American coins, among which the following may be noted :
Medal commemorating the taking of the Bastille, with the head of Washington by Duvivier (1776 ).
Medals in honour of the Battle of Cowpens (1871), engraved by Duvivier (infantry and cavalry).
Medal commemorating the Peace with England (1783), engraved by Gatteaux and Duvivier.
Medal struck in honour of Paul Jones, engraved by Dupré.
Medal struck in honour of Franklin, engraved by Dupré.
Medal struck in honour of Lafayette, engraved by Duvivier.
Medal struck in honour of Suffren.
Medal struck in commemoration of the Commercial Treaty with America (1822), engraved by Andrien and Gayrard.
Medal of the Franco-American Union by Roty.
Dollar La Fayette.
All the medals encircle the medallion of the Second Centenary of the birth of Benjamin Franklin, the work of Louis and Augustus St. Gaudens, the only copy in gold given to the French Republic by the American nation.
In a second glass case among the coins relating to the War of 1914-1919 are medals with effigies of Washington and La Fayette, of General Pershing, of Marshals Joffre and Foch and of President Wilson.
A third glass case, reserved for foreign engravers, contains the works of the American engraver, V. D. Brenner; the painter Whistler; the transference of the remains of Admiral Paul Jones ; plaquettes with effigies of G. A. Lucas, S. P. Avery, W. A. Muhlenberg, etc.
2. Troisieme Salle (looking onto the Quai). A glass case, reserved for the reign of Louis XVI, contains the medals of Washington, and of the taking of Boston, of Paul Jones, and of the Battle of Cowpens.
3. Cinquieme Salle (looking onto the Quai). In one of the divisions of the circular glass case, in the centre of the hall, money in circulation in the United States and in the other, States of America.
A complete exhibition of all these souvenirs is at present under consideration.
The medal commemorating the surrender of Yorktown has this in particular, that it was engraved under the direction of Franklin, during his stay in Paris, but with some alterations of the original idea. He mentions it in a letter of the 4th March 1782. On the face of the medal is engraved the head of Liberty with the inscription LIBERTAS AMERICANA, and the date of the Independence: July 4th, 1776. On the reverse is the figure of America, with the face of Hercules as a child struggling with two serpents; Minerva, emblem of France, protects the young god, with her shield covered with fleur-de-lys, against the attacks of the British leopard; the device is NON SINE DIIS ANIMOSUS INFANS ; below are engraved the dates of the two victories of Saratoga (the surrender of Burgoyne) and of Yorktown (surrender of Cornwallis) : 17th October, 1777, and 19th October, 1781.
In the same letter of March 4th, 1782, Franklin wrote: "France is truly a generous nation, loving glory, and particularly proud of protecting the oppressed."
The following medals are for sale by the administration of the Monnaie, in the special shop for this purpose, open every day, except Sundays and holidays, at the Monnaie, from 9 till 11 o'clock. The specimens in silver and in bronze are brought there by request; the specimens in gold should be ordered in advance. The price of the medals varies with the rates of the metals.
No. of the Catalogue:
10. Washington. The taking of Boston.
18. Paul Jones.
20. Battle of Cowpens (Cavalry).
21. Battle of Cowpens (Infantry).
61. Franklin (two models),
Louis XVL Constitutional Period
5. La Fayette.
13. La Fayette (with panels).
14. La Fayette (round).
The Franco- American Union (31 October 1886) (Roty).
The Restoration of San Francisco (Bottée).
America joins the Allies (Grégoire).
No. 23. ---Palais de I'Institut de France (formerly College of Mazarin or des Quatre Nations).
Among the foreign members, associates or corresponding, of the Institut de France, a certain number of American notabilities, such as Theodore Roosevelt, have always figured. At the present time (1920) the following are associate members:
President Woodrow Wilson (Académie des Sciences morales et politiques).
The Duc de Loubat (Académie des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres).
John S. Sargent (Académie des Beaux-Arts).
As corresponding members :
James Mark Baldwin (Académie des Sciences morales et politiques).
William Wallace Campbell (Académie des Sciences).
William Morris Davis (Académie des Sciences).
Charles William Eliot (Académie des Sciences morales et politiques).
William Gilson Farlow (Académie des Sciences).
George Ellery Hale (Académie des Sciences).
Charles Rockwell Lanman (Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres).
Jacques Loeb (Academie des Sciences).
Albert Michelson (Académie des Sciences).
Edward Charles Pickering (Academie des Sciences).
John Alexander Low Waddell (Académie des Sciences).
Charles Doolittle Walcot (Académie des Sciences).
A certain number of endowments have been created at the Institute by Americans. The Duc de Loubat has established an annuity of 6,000 francs destined to come to the aid of savants momentarily arrested in their labours ; he has also established a triennial prize of 3,000 francs, which bears his name, to be enjoyed by the author of the best work on the History, Geography, Archaeology, etc., of the New World; likewise a quinquennial prize of 15,000 francs, called the Gaston Maspéro prize, in favour of a work, or a collection of works relating to the Classical Ancient History of the East.
Mr. John Sandford Saltus, of New York, has founded an annual prize of five hundred francs in favour of the author of a war picture accepted at the Exhibition of the Beaux-Arts of Paris.
On many occasions the various classes of the Institute have chosen an event in the history or an institution of the United States as the subject of the concours. It was thus that, after the assassination of President Lincoln, which caused warm manifestations of sympathy from France, the French Academy made that event the subject of the prize for poetry of 1867; and that the prize Odilon Barrot, to be awarded in 1921 by the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques, has as subject "Local Self-government in the United States."
President Wilson was present Thursday, December 19th, 1918, at the reception of Marshal Joffre as Member of the Académie Française, in the Salle des Séances Solennelles (formerly Chapel of Mazarin College) .
2. The Bibliothèque Mazarin (entry in the courtyard to the left of the cupola of the Institut), contains a little known work of the Sculptor Jean- Jacques Caffieri (1725-1792) : it is the bust in terra-cotta, which he made of Benjamin Franklin, and which was shown in the Salon of 1777. Behind the bust is the following inscription: "Benjamin Franklin, born at Boston, in America, the XVIII January 1706, made by J. J. Caffieri in 1777." A plaster copy of this bust is in the Library of the Institut "This bust," says a newspaper of that time, "shows us a wise philosopher who seeks a remedy against the ills of his country. One can see his soul rising in indignation upon his face, the sweetness of which is changed by this sentiment."
Caffieri also received the order for a marble tomb for General Montgomery, killed before Quebec. This monument was intended to be placed in the great Hall of the States-General of Philadelphia. Caffieri exhibited, at the Salon of 1777, the design for it, which was, engraved by Augustin de Saint-Aubin; but the monument was never executed.
Cortambert (Rue) --- (XVI).
No. 24. ---Was inhabited by Loie Fuller, who lived many years in Paris, where she created and enacted her serpentine dance. She played at the Folies-Bergères and at the Odéon.
Courcelles (Boulevard de) --- (XVII).
No. 72. ---Inhabited by René Viviani, former Minister, and Chief of the French Mission to the United States in 1917.
Dareau (Rue) --- (XIV).
No. 5. ---Inhabited by Paul W. Bartlett, author of the equestrian statue of La Fayette, erected in the Square du Carrousel. A pupil of Frémiet and of Rodin, he obtained honourable mention at the Salon of 1887, and was declared Hors-Concours in 1889. He was a member of the Jury at the Exhibitions of 1889 and of 1900. He is a member of the American Art Association.
Dauphine (Rue) --- (VI).
Nos. 16 and 18. ---Site of a large building in which was founded in 1780 the Musée de Paris on the initiative of the philologist Court de Gébelin. Franklin was among the founders.
The Musée de Paris was a learned society composed of men of letters, of savants and of artists, who met every Tuesday from 5 to 9 o'clock. This society then met in the hall of the Musée Scientifique, founded by Pilâtre de Rozier, in the Rue Sainte-Avoze, now Rue du Temple.
Denain (Boulevard) --- (X).
Gare du Chemin de Fer du Nord. The Railway of the Nord leads especially to the battlefields of the Somme and of the Aisne where the American troops fought, as well as to the American cemeteries of Bony, to the north of St. Quentin, of Amiens, of Juvigny to the north of Soissons, and of Ploisy, to the south of Soissons. (See Suresnes.)
Diderot (Boulevard) --- (XII).
No. 23. ---It is on this site that was built the prison of Mazas, in which was confined as hostage in 1871, during the troubles of the Commune, the Archbishop of Paris, Mgr. Darboy. On the demand which was addressed to him by Mgr. Chigi, papal nuncio at Paris, Mr. Washburne, United States Ambassador, intervened in favour of the Archbishop, closely confined at Mazas since the beginning of April.
Raoul Rigaut, purveyor of the Commune, authorised Washburne to communicate with Mgr. Darboy on the 23d of April. Washburne made use of his pass many times, six times up to the 18th of May, bringing to the Archbishop the newspapers and the news of the day. On the 21st of May he had some difficulty in seeing him, and could only converse with him in presence of the warders. The Archbishop was transferred the evening of the same day to La Roquette, where he was shot three days later.
Dumotit d'Urville (Rue) --- (XVI).
No. 53. ---Hôtel of Joseph Florimund, Duc de Loubat, who often lives there, and who has founded, at the Collège de France, a Professorship of American Antiquities. He is a corresponding member of the Institut of France.
Ecole de Medecine (Rue de l') --- (VI).
Numerous American students have followed courses of the Faculty of Medecine here, where may be found recollections of some famous Americans. Before the Revolution the American surgeon, Benjamin Rush, visited the hospitals of Paris. During the war of 1870 Dr. James Marion Sims, who had been established many years in Paris where he had acquired a wide reputation, was at the head of the first ambulance which reached Sedan before the battle,
Ecoles (Rue des) --- (V).
To the Inquiry Bureau is annexed a "Comité de patronage des Etudiants étrangers," founded in 1891 by M. Paul Mellon, and intended to give to those students a moral support by supplying them with all necessary information as much from the point of view of their studies as from that of their material life.
Since 1904, thanks to the personal efforts of Mr. James H. Hyde, and, officially, since 1911, after an agreement between the Universities of Harvard, Columbia and the French Ministry of Public Instruction, an exchange of lectures takes place between the University of Paris and these two universities, the classes for which are followed in Paris by a large French and American audience. The American lecturers, for the greater part from the University of Harvard, who have succeeded one another at the Sorbonne and in the provincial universities till now (1920), are the following:
1904-1905 : Barrett Wendel, of Harvard.
1905-1906: D. Santayana, of Harvard.
1906-1907: A. C Coolidge, of Harvard.
1907-1908: G, P. Baker, of Harvard.
1908-1909: H. Van Dyke, of the University of Princeton, ex-minister of the United States to The Hague.
1909-1910: Bliss Perry, of Harvard.
1910-1911: J. H. Finley, inspector-general of public instruction of New York State.
1911-1912: W. M. Davis, of Harvard, first official lecturer at the Sorbonne.
1912-1913 : G. G. Wilson, of Harvard, and Jesse Macey of Grinnell College.
1913-1914: W. Bocher, of Harvard, and C. H. Van Tyne, of Michigan University.
1914-1915: W. A. Neilson, of Harvard; R. B, Merriman, and E. H. Hall, of Harvard.
1915-1916: C. H. Grandgent, of Harvard.
1916-1917: W. C. Sabine, J. H. Woods, and J. B. Carter, ex-director of the American Academy of Rome, all three of Harvard.
1917-1918: J. H. Woods, of Harvard.
1918-1919: Dean L. B. R. Briggs
1919-1920: Dean Henry A. Yeomans.
From the 1st March to the 1st July 1919, special classes reserved to students of the American Army, officers and soldiers, were organised by the University of Paris, aided by Mr. Stephen Bush; 904 students have followed these classes in the various faculties and schools following:
Faculty of Letters, 372.
Faculty of Sciences, 212.
Faculty of Law, 196.
Faculty of Medicine, 123.
School of Pharmacy, 1.
The University of Paris has organised for the scholastic year 1919-1920 another series of classes for American students, comprising :
I. Classes in the French language given by the Alliance Française in its quarters, 101 Boulevard Raspail.
II. General classes of French civilisation intended for students who, perfectly understanding French, desire to gain a knowledge of the whole history, geography, literature, ideas of art, of politics, and of institutions of France. These classes are given at the Sorbonne, at the Faculté des Sciences, at the Faculté de Droit, and at the Faculté de Médecine.
III. Classes for graduates specially organised at the Faculté des Sciences and at the Faculté de Médecine, and for the other faculties and schools, regular classes open to American students prepared to follow an advanced and specialised instruction.
Some scholarships have been granted to American students by The Society for American Fellowships in French Universities.
Regular or free classes, treating of America, have been, on the other hand, organised, and are now being professed at the Sorbonne. Thus it is that during the war M. Firmin Roz has given a free course of lectures in 1916-17 on "American Idealism," and in 1917-18 on Washington and Lincoln. A regular course of Literature and of American Civilisation was founded there in 1918. The present holder of the professorship, Mr. Charles Cestre, formerly Master of Arts of Harvard University, where he was professor in 1917-1918, spoke on "America and the War," during the first year (1918-1919).
The President of Columbia University, Mr. Nicholas Murray Butler, offered, during the war, to the University of Paris, thanks to the "Carnegie Endowment" a "North American Library at the Sorbonne," comprising already, in November 1919, a basis of 2,000 volumes on the literature, history and the different institutions of the United States,
The Harvard Club of Paris, which has for its aim the reunion of the old Harvard students living in France, was founded in 1913 on the initiative of Robert Bacon and James H. Hyde. It meets several times a year at dinners and evening entertainments, but has no headquarters. Robert W. Bliss, adviser to the United States Embassy, was its president in 1919.
The great amphitheatre of the Sorbonne, where Theodore Roosevelt had already been received in 1910, has served, during the war, for many manifestations of Franco-American sympathy, among which have been :
On the 29th May, 1915, a solemn ceremony organised in homage to the French artists and writers in the United States.
On the 23rd of November, 1916, lecture by M. Alexandre Millerand, now president of France, on the Charitable Effort of the United States ; M. Boutroux of the Académie Française, and Mr. W. G. Sharp, United States Ambassador, also made speeches.
Collège de France.--- The Duc de Loubat, associate member of the Institut de France, founded in 1903 at the Collège de France a professorship of American Antiquities worth 9,000 francs a year, the present holder of which is M. Capitan, member of the Académie de Medecine. He has assisted pecuniarily the Manual of American Archaeology of H. Beuchat ; likewise the excavating at Delos, and the publication of the excavations of Delphes, both carried out by the French School in Athens.
Edward VII (Rue) --- (IX).
No. 8. ---Headquarters of the Y. W. C. A. The Y. W. C A. began its activities in France and in Paris in October 1917, at the request of English and French organisations, and in answer to the appeal of the Y. M. C, A, ; at that date a mission was sent from the United States composed of Miss Henrietta Roelofs, administrative directress; Miss Mary A. Dingman, charged with the study of the situation of French women, and Miss Katy Boyd George, to watch over the situation of American women.
Since that date the Y. W. C. A. has worked, with growing activity, to establish, in Paris as well as in the provinces, four main lines of work:
Signal Corps Houses.
French Foyers des Alliés.
All these works have been kept going by private subscriptions gathered in the United States.
There were five centres of work in December 1917, and 93 at the end of 1919. Speaking only of its activity in Paris, the Y. W. C. A. has opened three hôtels destined principally for the use of American women employed in war work; the first, the Hôtel de Petrograd, 33 Rue de Caumartin, in December 1917; the second, the Oxford and Cambridge Hôtel, 13 Rue d'Alger, in February 1919; the third, Hôtel du Palais-Royal, 4 Rue de Valois, in April 1919. Also in Paris have been founded eight Foyers des Alliés by this work, so as to provide, during hostilities, for the workers in war factories comfortable recreation rooms where they would find a home-like atmosphere.
The Y. W. C A. has been directed in Paris by Miss Harriet Taylor, of New York.
Elysée (Rue de l') --- (VIII).
No. 10. ---The American Library Association has opened here, since the Summer of 1919, to all American and French citizens without distinction, the library which was established during the war for the use of the troops of the American Expeditionary Forces. This library, which comprises about 15,000 volumes, renders the greatest services as much to French as to American residents of Paris, who there find a documentation of the most useful kind for everything concerning American history, literature and science.
The library is opein every day from 9 o'clock in the morning to 10 o'clock in the evening, and on Sundays from 2 o'clock in the afternoon to 10 o'clock in the evening.
During the war the American Library Association sent to the American troops in France more than 1,800,000 books from January 1918, the date at which it began its work by the opening of an office for centralisation and expedition at Hoboken, until the 1st February, 1919. Sending these books permitted the foundation of many libraries in the provinces, and the creation in 1918 of the library of the Rue de l'Elysée, which has been made use of by more than 30,000 members of the American Expeditionary Forces.
Estrapade (Rue de l') --- (V).
No. 34. ---The celebrated sculptor David d'Angers (1789-1856), the sculptor of busts of La Fayette and of Washington, which are placed in the hall of Congress of the United States in Washington, lived here from 1822 to 1824. He also executed the statue of Jefferson which is placed in the Capitol in Washington; a replica of this work is to be seen at Angers, his native city, to which it was offered by Mr. Jefferson M. Levy of New York.
Etats-Unis (Place des) --- (XVI)
Created in 1866, this Place has successively borne the names of Galilée and of Bitche; it received its present name in 1881. In the square stands the monument of Washington and La Fayette, in memory of the two heroes of American independence. The statues, in bronze, are the work of the Sculptor Bartholdi ; the pedestal was executed by the architect C. Formigé. The monument, given to the City of Paris by Joseph Pulitzer, owner of the New York World, was inaugurated at the beginning of December, 1895. A replica of this monument was unveiled in New York at the end of April, 1900. A ceremony in honour of the Americans who died for France took place before this monument, 30th May, 1916. At No. 11 of the Place is the Hôtel Bischoffsheim, home of M. and Mme. Francis de Croisset, where President Wilson stayed during his second residence in Paris for the work of the Peace Conference, after his return from the United States, the 14th March, 1919, until the 28th June of the same year. In the study which he used there, several meetings of the "Four" took place (President Wilson, Clemenceau, Lloyd George, Orlando).
No. 3 was the residence in 1882 and 1883 of Levi P. Morton, United States Minister-Plenipotentiary.
No. 6. ---Two United States Ministers-Plenipotentiary have lived here, Levi P. Morton in 1884 and Robert M. MacLane in 1885-1886.
Eylau (Avenue d') --- (XVI).
No. 14. ---Was inhabited from 1914 to 1919 by W. G. Sharp and Hugh Wallace, Ambassadors of the United States to Paris.
Férou (Rue) --- (VI).
No. 15.---It was here that Whistler executed the fine portrait of the painter Fantin-Latour who lived in this house.
Fleurus (Rue de) --- (VI).
No. 1. ---Headquarters of the "American University Union in Europe." The American University Union, founded in Paris, 6th July, 1917, established its headquarters in this building from the 1st November 1919, after having occupied the Hôtel du Palais-Royal, Rue de Richelieu.
During the war it served as a club for all the students of American universities serving with the American troops ; at the end of June 1919 about 30,000 of them were enrolled on its registers. It has for its principal aims :
(1) To furnish to American students a centre for study and meeting, with a reading and writing room, library, etc.
(2) To favour by all possible means a closer interchange between the universities of the Allied countries and the American universities by encouraging the exchange of professors, of scholarship holders and of students, by regulating the questions of the equal value of studies and of diplomas, by spreading reciprocal knowledge of the universities of the Allies.
American students especially find here a clearing house of information on everything concerning American and French universities, likewise information concerning lodgings and boarding houses.
The City of Paris during the war offered to the American University Union a piece of ground situated between the Sorbonne and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, on which a house for American students in Paris will be built.
The American University Union is at the present time directed by Charles B. Vibbert, director, and Horatio L. Krans, secretary (1920).
François Ier (Rue) --- (VIII).
No. 5. ---Was, during the war, the headquarters of the "American Relief Clearing House" founded by Myron T. Herrick to co-ordinate the efforts of the charitable associations of the United States; this work forwarded to their intended possessors the innumerable gifts of American generosity, being, from November 1914 to June 1917: 150,000 cases, 12 millions in cash, and 86 millions in provisions of all sorts. In 1917 it forwarded its accounts to the American Red Cross directly the United States joined the war.
No. 5. ---Former hôtel of Mme. Ridgway, which was the residence of the United States Embassy from 1907 to 1914. President Theodore Roosevelt stopped here in 1910, from the 21st to the 28th of April, during the short stay which he made in Paris.
No. 35. ---Hôtel occupied by the Aero Club of France. James Gordon Bennett gave to this club in November 1905 the cup which bears his name.
Francs Bourgeois (Rue des) --- (III).
Barras owned a hôtel at former No. 14; he gave it to his steward, then came back and lived in it in 1814.
No. 60. ---Archives Nationales. The Archives Nationales installed in the Hôtel de Soubise, built in 1706, contain a certain number of documents concerning the history of the Franco-American diplomatic relations, as, for example, autographs of Jefferson, of Vergennes, etc.
During the war, in 1916, the President of the Republic deposited at the Archives Nationales a register containing 500 signatures of Americans of note, which had been given to him in June of the same year by Dr. Morton Prince. This volume is entitled "America to France." It was presented to the Republic of France "as a token of profound admiration and esteem of the signers for the spirit and valour of the French nation."
The book as well as the Convention of the 30th April, 1803, between France and the United States, is on exhibition in the main hall of the Archives.
In the last room of the museum, in a glass case and among the old bindings is an extract of Paul Jones' diary presented by him to Louis XVI, the 1st January, 1786.
Franklin (Rue) --- (XVI).
This was in the XVIIIth Century a road which was called Rue Neuve-des-Minimes. It received its present name by a decree, dated September 3rd, 1791, of the Counsul General of the Commune of Passy; it would seem that Franklin lived, in 1776, at No. 21, for a short time, before going to live in the Rue Raynouard.
In a little square which is to be found in that part of the street near to the Place du Trocadéro, was inaugurated, 27th April, 1906, on the occasion of the bicentenary of his birth, a bronze statue of Benjamin Franklin, by J. J. Boyle. The bas-relief is the work of Fr. Brou, This statue was offered to the City of Paris by John H. Harjes.
Georges Clemenceau lives at No. 8.
Galilée (Rue) --- (VIII).
No. 59. ---Was occupied from 1887 to 1897 by the Offices of the Chancellor of the American Legation.
Gaillon (Rue) --- (II).
On the site of No. 1, destroyed when the Avenue de l'Opéra was cut through, rose in 1793 a private Hôtel of the United States, one of the first so-called in Paris. The Conventionalist Saint-Just lived here.
Georges-Guynemer (Rue) --- (VI).
No. 38. ---Office of the New York Tribune. It was as special correspondent of the New York Tribune that Charles A. Dana began in Paris his journalistic career, by making reports at the moment of the Revolution of 1848.
Gobelins (Avenue des) --- (XIII).
No. 42. ---Manufacture des Gobelins established here by Colbert in 1667.
The factory placed on the loom in 1920 a tapestry representing the departure of the American troops from the United States, and their march past the monument of Independence, the model of which, by G. L. Jaulmes, was shown at the Salon d'Automne of 1919, and is destined for the city of Philadelphia.
Grande-Armée (Avenue de la) --- (XVI and XVII).
No. 80. ---John Bigelow, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, lived here in 1865.
Grande Chaumière (Rue de la) --- (VI).
No. 5. ---American Chapel of Saint Luke.
Grange-aux-belles (Rue) --- (X).
Nos. 41-43. ---Site of the foreign Protestants' cemetery in Paris, in which was buried Paul Jones in 1792,
This cemetery was situated in the XVIIIth Century, since 1762, at the western angle of the Rue de l'Hôpital Saint- Louis, now Rue Grange-aux-belles, and of the Rue des Morts, now Rue des Ecluses-Saint-Martin. Its site is occupied now by exactly five houses: No. 1 of the Rue des Ecluses-Saint-Martin, where formerly the entrance gate of the cemetery opened; Nos. 47 and 45 of the Rue Grange- aux-belles, which correspond to the courtyard and the Nos. 41 and 43 of the same street where was the garden in which the burials took place.
It was there that, the 20th July, 1792, was buried the admiral. A delegation of the Constitutional Assembly assisted at the ceremony with the commissary of the King, Simonneau, especially charged with the supervision of Protestant burials. Pastor Marron pronounced a moving speech over the tomb. In July 1899 the United States Embassy in Paris engaged in a search for the burial place of Paul Jones, but it could be positively identified only through the knowledge of a generous act of the commissary of the King, Simonneau. Jones having died penniless, one of his friends, Colonel Blakstein (or Blackden) addressed himself to the latter for the purpose of obtaining a free burial. Simmonneau generously promised, the 19th July, at the Constitutional Assembly, to himself defray the expenses, and it is thanks to him that Jones was buried in a lead coffin filled with alcohol.
The work of research was again undertaken in February 1905. It necessitated the sinking of a well and the creation of many galleries, the ground of the old cemetery sloping downwards. The coffin was discovered, the 15th April, at a depth of a yard and a half, in the courtyard of No. 41 of the Rue Grange-aux-belles. This site corresponds exactly with the extremity of the central alley which, starting from a flight of steps leading into the garden, ended in the tombs ranged at the foot of the wall of the southern enclosure. The coffin had thus been deposed in a place of honour.
The coffin was transported on April 9th to the School of Medicine, where the body, which was found to be surprisingly well preserved, was examined and identified; the traces of the malady to which Jones had succumbed could be recognised, and even the absolute conformity between the measures taken on the bust of Houdon and on the head itself could be verified.
On the 6th of July a service was celebrated at the American Church of the Avenue de 1'Alma, now Avenue Georges V, in memory of the Admiral, whose remains were then taken in great solemnity to the Gare des Invalides to be transported to America via Cherbourg. The American Government had sent on that occasion to Paris a detachment of sailors and of marines who escorted the coffin, placed on an artillery wagon, and decorated with flags belonging to the two nations.
From Cherbourg the American cruiser Brooklyn, on board of which was Mr. Loomis, a special envoy of the United States Government, transported the body of the celebrated admiral to America,
Grange-Batelière (Rue) --- (IX).
It was in this street at the furnished Hôtel of the Grange-Batelière, that Oliver Ellsworth and William R. Davey, charged with a mission to the French Government with William Vans Murray, stopped, in 1800.
Grenelle (Pont de) --- (XVI).
In the centre of this bridge was erected in 1889 a statue of Liberty illuminating the World by Bartholdi, which is a reduced replica of that of New York. It was offered by a group of Americans.
Grenelle (Rue de) --- (VII).
Talleyrand lived in the Rue de Grenelle on his return from America, from 1797 to 1804, in the former Hôtel de Maurepas.
No. 87. ---Barbe-Marbois lived here from 1807 to 1815.
Grétry (Rue) --- (II).
No. 5. ---Brissot (1754-1793), who played a considerable part in the French Revolution, lived here from 1790 to I793 shortly after his return from the United States. He had founded in Paris, in 1787, the French Society of the Friends of the Blacks, in imitation of that which had been shortly before created in England, and, with Saint-Jean de Crevecœur and some other friends, a Society Gallo-Americaine, the first of its kind, whose members met "to confer on the public and reciprocal good of France and the United States." One of the aims of the association was to draw into closer relation "the French individual and the American individual." The Society was to publish books, import newspapers from America, works, law-texts, and to welcome "the Americans whose business brought them to France." Brissot arrived in Boston in July 1788, visited Franklin who was very ill, and Washington. On his return he published an account of this under the name of "New Voyage to the United States of North America," Paris, 3 volumes, 1791. This work served largely to make America favourably known in Europe, for it was translated into English, German and Dutch.
Haussmann (Boulevard) --- (IX).
No. 41. ---The Farmers' Loan and Trust Co. Here also was established, during the war, the headquarters of the "Committee of Jewish Welfare" (Jewish Bequest) started in France during the last months of the war for the purpose of looking after the Jews in the American Army. Fourteen centres of action were created in France by it, one being in Paris where the soldiers found the services of their religion, and recreation rooms with books, etc.
Hauteville (Rue d') --- (X).
No. 30. ---The United States Consulate was established here from 1842 to 1844.
Henri IV (Boulevard) --- (IV).
No. 3. ---At the eastern point of the Ile St. Louis and opposite No. 3 of the Boulevard Henri IV, stands the monument erected in 1894 to the great animal sculptor Barye, thanks to the subscriptions, not only of his fellow-countrymen, but also of a large number of his American admirers.
No. 35. ---Two Ministers Plenipotentiary of the United States to Paris have lived here: Whitelaw Reid in 1890 and 1891, and Thomas Jefferson Coolidge in 1892.
Horloge (Quai de l') ---(I).
No. 1. ---La Conciergerie, which occupies the lower floor of the right wing of the Palais de Justice, and serves as a depot for the accused during their trial, was, during the Revolution, the place of detention of illustrious prisoners, among whom were Marie Antoinette and two former combatants of the American War, the Comte de Fersen, who, faithful to the Queen, tried unsuccessfully to procure her escape, and the old Marshal de Rochambeau, who was condemned to death by the Revolutionary tribunal. It is told that at the moment that he was about to get into the cart of the condemned the executioner, finding it full, cried out to him, "Get away, old marshal! Your time will come later on." The 9th Thermidor saved him from the guillotine, and his wounds were tended at the Archevêché.
Biron, who, under the name of Duc de Lauzun, made the American campaign, was also confined in the Conciergerie ; when he returned there after his condemnation by the Revolutionary Tribunal, he saluted the other prisoners and said to them unconcernedly: "By my faith! friends, it is finished : I am going away."
Successive transformations have notably altered the character of this prison ; the former quarters of the men in particular have been completely modified. (The only visiting day is Thursday, with a permit from the Prefecture of Police, Bureau des Prisons, for the cell of Marie Antoinette, that of Robespierre, and the Hall of the Girondins.)
Hôtel de Ville --- (IV).
The former Hôtel de Ville of Paris, burnt during the Commune in 1871, and the present Hôtel de Ville have been the setting of frequent Franco-American manifestations of sympathy.
On the 25th November 1783 was published throughout the streets of Paris the Royal Command which proclaimed the Peace of Versailles ; for the last time in the history of fhe French Monarchy this ceremony was accomplished with traditional pomp. The Chevalier de la Haye, King-at-Arms of France, accompanied by six Heralds-at-Arms, and preceded by the music of the Chambre and of the Ecuries du Roi, went to the Hôtel de Ville to seek the Provost of Merchants, the Corps de Ville and le Châtelet. He went with them to the fourteen public places designated by custom, and in each of them, after the three customary ringings of bells, he ordered the first Herald to read the order aloud. After which he returned to the Hôtel de Ville to which he brought back the Provost of the Merchants and the Magistrates.
The 14th of December following the city was illuminated ; there was a display of fireworks on the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville, and balls with orchestras and buffets were organised at the crossroads.
In the Great Hall, situated on the first floor, took place, 28th September, 1786, at noon, the inauguration of the bust of La Fayette by Houdon. In virtue of two deliberations of the State of Virginia (17th December, 1781, and 1st December, 1784), Jefferson, United States Minister Plenipotentiary in France, had been charged to order in their name from the sculptor Houdon a bust of the Marquis de La Fayette and to offer it to the Bureau de la Ville de Paris. Louis XVI approved of this offer and the ceremony of handing over the bust took place 28th September, 1786. After a speech from Louis Le Pelletier, Provost of Merchants, Short, Jefferson's secretary, read a letter from the latter who, being ill, was unable to attend the ceremony, as also the text and the translation of the deliberation of the State of Virginia ; after him M. Ethis de Corney, Advocate and Attorney for the King and of the City, pronounced a final discourse. The bust of La Fayette was placed on the chimneypiece at the end of the Great Hall on the first floor; it was destroyed on the Revolutionary day of 10th August, 1792; another copy of this bust made by Houdon in 1787 is to be found now in the State Library in Richmond.
In 1791 the City of Paris offered to La Fayette the marble bust of Washington by Pilon.
When the Revolution of July 1830 broke out Robert Milligan MacLane, who later became United States Ambassador to Paris, accompanied La Fayette to the Hôtel de Ville for the reception of the Duc d'Orléans, on July 29th, and the next day to the Palais-Royal, when the Duc d'Orléans was proclaimed Lieutenant-General.
At the time of the Revolution of 1848 Richard Rush, United States Minister in France from 1847 to 1849, was the first to recognise the new regime by order of his government. On the 6th March 1848 a deputation of the Americans of Paris came to the Hôtel de Ville to find the provisional government ; Mr. Goodrich spoke in their name, and offered two American flags as emblems of the ever-lasting alliance between the two nations. M. Arago answered in the name of the provisional government and accepted the flags to place them in the Hôtel de Ville.
Under the Second Empire the Library of the Hôtel de Ville, destroyed in 1871 during the troubles of the Commune, was enriched by a remarkable collection of books given by different States of the United States. This collection numbered about 20,000 volumes and comprised in particular the documents of Congress and documents of every nature published by the federal administration.
The Golden Book of the Ville de Paris preserves the recollection of many receptions given in the new Hôtel de Ville to notabilities of American associations :
September 1884: Reception of the President of the Municipal Council of Boston.
27th June, 1889: Reception of the Society of Civil Engineers of the United States.
9th September, 1889: Gala dinner given in honour of Edison.
14th October, 1890 : Reception of the Congress of Americanists.
5th July, 1905 : Reception of Mr. Loomis, United States Ambassador Extraordinary, of the Admiral Commander-in- Chief and Officers of the American Squadron come to France for the translation of the remains of Admiral Paul Jones.
5th July, 1913 : Visit of an American mission charged by the United States Government to study the organisation and the working of the institutions of credit, of co-operation and of agricultural mutuality.
22nd April, 1917: Reception of Mr. Sharp, United States Ambassador.
6th September, 1917: A flag offered by the city of Philadelphia was flown over the Hôtel de Ville.
26th October, 1917: Visit of representatives of New Orleans, on the occasion of the bicentenary of its foundation.
6th April, 1918 : Reception of Mr. W. G. Sharp, Ambassador, of Mr. Baker, Secretary of War, and of members of the American Colony on the occasion of the anniversary of the entry of the United States into the war.
10th May, 1918: Visit of representatives of the American Federation of Labour, and of delegates of the American universities.
3rd August, 1918: Reception of Mr. Hoover, Minister of Supplies of the United States.
14th November, 1918: Reception of Mr. Davison, President of the War Committee of the American Red Cross, and the representatives of the American Red Cross.
On 16th December, 1918, President Wilson was solemnly received at the Hôtel de Ville by the Municipal Council and the Prefect of the Seine : he put his signature to the Livre d'Or during the ceremony. President Wilson was accompanied by Mrs. and Miss Wilson, by Mr. and Mrs. R. Lansing, by Mr. William G. Sharp, Mr. Henry White, General Bliss, General Pershing, Admiral Benson and General Hart; speeches of welcome were addressed to him by M. Mithouard, President of the Municipal Council, and by the Prefect of the Seine. A gold medal of the Ville de Paris was offered to him. Three days before, on the 13th December, the Municipal Council had conferred on him the title of citizen of Paris, which had never before been bestowed.
On 3d July, 1919, the Municipal Council of Paris and the Prefect of the Seine gave at the Hôtel de Ville a reception in honour of the delegates of the American Army and Navy. These were represented by General Pershing, Admiral Knapp, Lieutenant General Hunter Ligget, Admirals Long, Wiley, Halstead, Major Generals Summerall, Hines, Harboard, Brewster, Brigadier General Hart, and a large number of officers of the American Army and Navy. After the signing of the Livre d'Or speeches were pronounced by the President of the Municipal Council M. Evain, the Prefect of the Seine, M. Autrand, and by General Pershing. Marshal Foch assisted at this ceremony.
On the 28th October 1919, Mrs. William Astor Chanler, and Mr. John Moffat, President and Chairman of the French Heroes La Fayette Memorial Fund, and of the American Agency for Relief in France, were received at the Hôtel de Ville by the President of the Municipal Council and the Prefect of the Seine, who recalled on this occasion the grandiose work accomplished in France by the American Red Cross.
Iéna (Avenue d') --- (XVI).
When it was the Rue des Batailles in the XVIIIth Century, Abbé Raynal died there suddenly in 1796, at the house of one of his friends who lived at No. 1. He was the author of one of the most famous among the books which had appeared at that time consecrated to America, "The Philosophical History of the Two Indies," this work, which sang the praise of the Americans, and particularly of Franklin and supported the prestige of the United States, was due to several collaborators, of whom Abbé Raynal was the moving spirit; he contributed much to the infatuation for the Quakers whose religion was looked upon as that of every American. French society of that period was already eager for equality, and looked upon America as the paradise of the human species and of liberty.
Iéna (Place d') --- (XVI).
In the centre of the Place stands the bronze statue of Washington, the work of Daniel Chester French, sculptor, and of Edward Potter, Architect. This statue was offered by the women of the United States of America "in memory of the friendship and fraternal aid given by France to their fathers during the struggle for Independence." It was inaugurated the 3rd July, 1900.
It is curious to recall, in relation to this, that, in 1800, after the death of Washington, a project was formed to erect a statue to him; events alone prevented its realisation. Talleyrand drew up the text of the decree, and recalled, in his statement of the motives, the similarity of sentiments between France "and this people who one day will be a great people, who now are the wisest and the happiest people of the earth," and who "lament the death of the man who, by his courage and his genius, contributed most to free it from its yoke so as to elevate it to the rank of independent and sovereign nations."
No. 5. ---Has been inhabited, since the end of 1919, by the United States Ambassador to Paris, Hugh Wallace.
Invalides (Eglise des).
When the news of the death of Washington, the 14th December, 1799, reached France early in 1800, solemn honours were rendered to his memory throughout the country and particularly at Paris. For ten days the officers of the French Army wore mourning and flags were at half-mast. General Bonaparte addressed to the troops an eloquent order of the day in which he said,: "Washington is dead. This great man fought against tyranny. His memory will be always cherished by the French people as by all free men of the two worlds, and especially by the French soldiers who, like him and the American soldiers, fought for equality and liberty."
In the Church of the Invalides, which was then called the Temple of Mars, a grandiose ceremony took place to celebrate the memory of Washington, February 8th, 1800. Bonaparte, first Consul, assisted at the head of all the high Government functionaries; detachments of the garrison of Paris filled the side aisles. The funeral oration of Washington was pronounced by Louis de Fontanes, the most celebrated orator of the epoch.
In the centre of the nave stood the bust of Washington, surrounded with laurels, and draped with the flags of both nations. In memory of the flags of Yorktown, formerly placed in the Independence Hall in Philadelphia, at the feet of the President of Congress and of Gerard de Rayneval; Minister of France, General Lannes placed before the picture of the former General-in-Chief ninety-six flags captured from the enemy by the armies of the Republic.
Invalides (Esplanade des) --- (VII).
In 1830 a plaster bust of La Fayette could be seen there surmounting a fountain.
Invalides (Hôtel des).
Created in 1670 by Louis XIV to receive officers and men of the troops rendered invalid through war, this superb hôtel, constructed by Liberal Bruant, was inhabited by the Prince Jérôme Bonaparte, who was Governor of the Invalides from 1848 to 1852, under the presidence of his nephew; he had married in 1803, at Baltimore, Miss Patterson, but this marriage was never approved by Napoléon I.
On the 4th of July, 1917, to celebrate Independence Day, there took place in the large courtyard of the Invalides the delivery to General Pershing of a flag draped with lace, the gift of, the city of the Puy, and of two standards of command offered by the descendants of the French officers who had taken part in the War of Independence. At the same time the flag of the American Volunteers who had fought for France in 1870 was placed in the Musée de 1'Armée.
Italians (Boulevard des) --- (II).
No. 27. ---The United States Consulate was established here in 1852-1853.
Italiens (Rue des) --- (IX).
No. 1. ---Guaranty Trust Company of New York. Consulate General of the United States of America. Office hours: 10 to 4; Saturdays, 10 to 1.
The Consulate has been established in this building since 1915.
The newspaper of the American Expeditionary Forces, Stars and Stripes, was also established in this building in 1918-1919.
Jacob (Rue) --- (VI).
The part of the Rue Jacob comprised between the Rue de Seine and the Rue St. Benoit was called Rue du Colombier before 1836; it was in this street that John Howard Payne had one of his domiciles during his residence in Paris.
No. 22. ---Private Hôtel d'Angleterre et de Grande Bretagne, which was already in existence during the Revolution ; Joel Barlow (1755-1812) lodged there about 1792.
Jean-Goujon (Rue) --- (VIII). .
No 17. ---It was here that the Minister-Plenipotentiary of the United States, W. L. Dayton, lived in 1862.
Joseph Bara (Rue) --- (VI)
No. 4. ---American Art Association and American Students Club. Founded in 1899 by Rodman Wanamaker, the American Art Association has for its aim the facilitating of study and the development of the Arts and Sciences in the American Colony of Paris ; its headquarters, comprising salles de réunion, for reading and for exhibitions, is at present situated in the Luxembourg Quarter, after having occupied various quarters in the Boulevard de Montparnasse, Quai Conti, and Rue Notre Dame des Champs.
The American Students Club, founded in 1911 by Rodman Wanamaker, is closely united to the American Art Association; it is composed of the same members and occupies the same building. It has for aim the grouping of American students staying for a time in Paris.
Kléber (Avenue) --- (XVI).
No. 18. ---The Chancellor's Office of the United States Embassy was installed here from 1898 to 1913.
No. 24. ---Was the seat of the United States Embassy from 1894 to 1896 (J. B. Eustis).
La Boétie (Rue de) ---(VIII).
Two United States Ministers Plenipotentiary at Paris lived in that part of the Rue de la Pépinière which has now become Rue de la Boétie: in 1841 General Lewis Cass at (former) No. 89, and in 1860, Ch. J. Faulkner at No. 49 (former).
No. 49. ---Hôtel Alfred André. During the war Hospital 232, Villiers Fund organized and supported by Madame Charles Huard.
Lacépède (Rue) --- (V).
Here was formerly situated one of the sides of the Prison of St. Pélagie which formed before its demolition a kind of square block, limited by the Rues de la Clef, du Puits-de-1'Hermite, de Lacépède and du Battoir. This prison had no cells, but dormitories, rooms and an isolated division generally reserved for political prisoners, and which was jokingly called the "Pavilion des Princes." Here was imprisoned for debt an American, brother-in-arms of Washington and of La Fayette, Colonel Swan, who refused to pay the interest on some money which he owed. He was often visited in prison by La Fayette. He liked to say to the doctor of St. Pélagie that he would miss the air of his prison. Released by the Revolution of July 1830, on the 28th, he died the next day.
During the Revolution of 1789 Admiral d'Estaing, who took part in the American War, was imprisoned here.
Laffitte (Rue)--- (IX).
The part of the Rue Laffitte comprised between the Boulevard des Italiens and the Rue de Provence was inhabited by two Americans, at the beginning of the XlXth Century, when it was known as Rue Cerutti.
No. 11. ---James Brown, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, lived here in 1825 and 1826.
No. 16. ---Was inhabited by Jonathan Russell, Chargé d'Affaires, in 1810.
No. 40. ---Lola Montes, the celebrated dancer, morganatic wife of King Louis of Bavaria, dwelt here before her second marriage with an Englishman, Heald, with whom she went to America. She danced in 1851 at the Broadway Theatre, New York, married for the third time a journalist in California, became a lecturer in New York, and died in 1861, aged forty-two years.
Lamennais (Rue) --- (VIII).
No. 15.--- In 1866 when the street was called Rue du Centre the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, John Bigelow, lived here.
La Michodière (Rue de) --- (II).
No. 6. ---Office of the New York Sun established in Paris since 1907.
Lamotte-Piquet (Avenue de) --- (VII).
So called in memory of the Comte de Piquet de la Motte, better known by the name of Lamotte-Piquet (1720-1791), who was one of the heroes of the American War and one of the most fortunate adversaries of England at sea. Following on the capture of 26 vessels of Admiral Rodney's Squadron, he was named Lieutenant General of the Naval Armies in January 1782; he had made 28 campaigns by the time he left the service in 1783, at the Peace of Versailles. He was made Grand-Croix de Sainte-Louis in 1784.
La Planche (Rue de) --- (VII).
At the time of his official nomination as United States Ambassador to Paris, in May 1792, Gouverneur Morris hired a house in the Rue de la Planche ; he was presented to the King the 3rd June at the Palace of the Tuileries, and only a short time afterwards, foreseeing the invasion of the Palace, Louis XVI caused to be sent to him all the money which he possessed there, and that he wished to preserve from pillage.
Lavoisier (Rue) --- (VIII).
This street was cut through the gardens of the hôtel of Benjamin Thompson, Comte de Rumford (1753- 1814), who, resident of Paris since 1802, there married in 1804 the widow of the great chemist Lavoisier, guillotined in 1794. The City of Paris gave his name to a street which went from the present Rue Lavoisier to the Rue de la Pépinière; this Rue de Rumford disappeared on the construction of the Boulevards Haussmann and Malesherbes under the Second Empire.
No. 19. ---This house has been inhabited by several Ministers and Chargé d' Affaires of the United States : in 1842, by General Lewis Cass; in 1843, by Henry Ledyard; from 1844 to 1845 by William R. King.
Léonard de Vinci (Rue) --- (XVI).
No. 12. ---It was in this house that Edwin Lord Weeks, painter of oriental scenes, lived for many years. At the Ecole des Beaux-Arts he met Julius L. Stewart, H. Humphrey Moore, a deaf and dumb artist, and Alexander Harrison, the marine painter. Frederick A. Bridgman had worked there before them. Weeks passed all his artist's life in Paris; he was a member of the Club of the Rue Volney, and exhibited at the salons from 1878 till his death in November 1903.
Lille (Rue de) --- (VII).
Called Rue de Bourbon from 1640 to 1792.
No. 64. --- Hôtel de Salm built in 1786 by Rousseau for the Prince de Salm-Kyrburg; Jefferson liked to go and look at it from the terrace at the water's side of the Jardin des Tuileries. La Fayette transformed the hôtel into a Reform Club during the Revolution.
The Hôtel de Salm has become the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur since 1804. Numerous Americans are today members of that order.
No. 123. ---Site of the former Hôtel de Forcalquier, which La Fayette bought and where he came to live in 1783 when he left the Hôtel de Noailles of the Rue Sainte-Honoré ; it was then No. 81 of the Rue de Bourbon. La Fayette, who spent more than 200,000 livres upon it, was very happy there. At the beginning of 1789, he there received at dinner Gouveneur Morris, who had shortly before arrived in Paris ; he had the delicate attention of making one of his young sons sing a song composed by his guest. La Fayette liked to be often with his American friends ; the same year he dined with Morris, at Versailles, 23rd June, at the Countess of Tesse's, and again with him at Jefferson's house, the 4th of July following, to celebrate the national holiday of the United States.
When the French branch of the Cincinnati Society was organised in Paris it was in this house of La Fayette's that the first meetings of the French officers holding their commissions from Congress were held, and especially the general assembly of 7th January, 1784; the meetings of the officers belonging to the French Army took place at the house of the Marshal de Rochambeau, Rue du Cherche-Midi.
Louis-le-Grand (Rue) --- (II).
No. 9. ---Offices of the Commercial Cable Company.
All the cable companies accept telegrams to be transmitted in twenty-four hours, and on which they consent to make a reduction of 50% on the ordinary tariff; these latter are what are called deferred cables, which are actually only the application to trans-oceanic communication of night telegraphic service in force in the United States.
Telegrams should be written in plain language, either in the language of the country from which they are sent, or in that of the country to which they are to go.
No. 30. ---Office of the New York Times.
In 1900 the New York Times published a special edition printed within the limits of the Universal Exhibition itself, from the 30th May till the 31st October. The newspaper appeared upon 12, 14, 16 pages; it published articles which had already appeared in the American edition of the New York Times, and 2, 4, 6 pages of European cables and of Exhibition news. Adolph Ochs, brother of the director, had come to Paris especially for the purpose of superintending this edition.
Louvre (Square du) --- (I).
Monument of La Fayette ( Marie-Jean-Mottier Marquis de) (1757-1834), offered by the children of the schools of the United States, who collected for this purpose more than 750,000 francs ; inaugurated 4th July, 1900.
The equestrian statue is the work of the sculptor P. W. Bartlett; the pedestal was built by the architect Thomas Hastings.
In the discourse which he pronounced the day of the inauguration, Mgr. Ireland, Archbishop of St. Paul, Minnesota, recalled a characteristic saying of Maurepas, Minister of Louis XVI, who, having just granted to La Fayette the aid solicited by him for his friends overseas, said: "Fortunately La Fayette does not ask that Versailles should be stripped of its furniture for his dear Americans, for Versailles surely would be!"
Louvre (Musée du) --- (I).
Modern Sculpture (entry under the Pavilion de 1'Horloge).
Salle Houdon ---Busts of Franklin and of Washington by Houdon (terra-cotta).
Furniture (entry under the Pavilion de l'Horloge) ; third hall, central glass case, No. 412. Small basin in flowered jasper, supported by cocks, a work attributed to the celebrated goldsmith Gouthière; this style of work became the fashion at the time of the War of Independence and of the departure of La Fayette.
No. 413. ---Candelabra commemorative of the War of Independence of the United States. It has seven lights and three sirens supporting the prows of vessels. Triangular base in green porphyry, with three leopards supporting a circular base of three plaques in biscuit de Sèvres. This work of Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1751-1843), of the end of the period of Louis XVI, comes from the Château of St. Cloud.
It is possible that these two articles, or at least the latter, formed part of the service which Louis XVI ordered from Thomire in memory of the American War.
Paintings and Drawings. ---Among the drawings not ex- hibited this department preserves, among others, some drawings executed by Puvis de Chavannes for the possible decoration of the Boston Library (Nos. 2307 to 2312), and a portrait of La Fayette by Duvivier.
Musée de la Marine. ---Salle ---Bust of Fulton, by Houdon.
Madeleine (Place de la) ----(VIII).
No. 1. ---Barbe-Marbois lived here from 1834, and died here in 1837.
No. 16. ---Knights of Columbus' Overseas Headquarters. The offices of this important association were established in Paris in March 1918, first in the offices of the American Express Company, then for about two months at the offices of the Guaranty Trust Company, finally, since May 1918 at 16 Place de la Madeleine.
The head club has been established at 27 Boulevard Malesherbes.
The Knights of Columbus have established "activities" in various parts of Paris ; they opened in the United States, in September 1919, a subscription to give, in the name of the Knights of Columbus, to the town of Metz a statue of La Fayette, representing him leaving that garrison in 1775 to engage his heart and his sword in the service of liberty.
The war contributions of the Knights of Columbus have risen to more than 76 million francs, devoted to the welfare of American soldiers. This association has employed on the Continent nearly 800 delegates, placed under the direction of Edward L. Hearn.
Malaquais (Quai) --- (VI)
No. 9. ---Hôtel, called de Transylvanie, which was let in 1782 to the Comte de Vergennes, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who signed the Treaty of Versailles ; he lived here until about 1787, the date of his death, but he died at Versailles.
Malesherbes (Boulevard) --- (VIII).
No. 21 bis. ---Was occupied during the War by the Knights of Columbus.
Marbeuf (Rue) --- (VIII).
No. 28. ---Headquarters of the French Heroes' La Fayette Memorial Fund.
Founded in April 1916 by Mrs. William Astor Chanler and John C. Moffat, the French Heroes' La Fayette Memorial Fund has for its principal object to help the children of French soldiers killed in warfare; the Château de Chavaniac (Haute-Loire), where La Fayette was born, was bought to house some of the works instituted for this object. A school for orphans and a preventorium for boys of delicate health are installed here; in the neighbourhood, at Chadrac and at the Puy, colonies for children have been also organised. A museum is in course of creation at the Château de Chavaniac; it is intended for the reception of documents or souvenirs bearing, on the one hand, on La Fayette and the War of Independence, and on the other on the Great War of 1914-1918 in thirteen rooms bearing the names of the thirteen American States in existence at the time of the War of Independence.
In Paris a boarding school, Washington-La Fayette, installed at 1 bis. Boulevard Beauséjour (XVI) receives young boys, the sons of officers killed in war, or members of families ruined by war, who there finish their studies ; scholarships permit their studying for some time in the United States and completing there their technical studies. These scholarships, while waiting till the pupils of Chavaniac shall be old enough to avail themselves of them, have been granted in 1919 to pupils leaving the Polytechnique.
The works are completed at Paris by a vestiare and an emergency committee which, since January 1918, have distributed more than 2 millions in aid.
The President of the Paris Committee is J. Ridgeley Carter of the bank of Morgan, Harjes and Co. ; an executive committee of eight members occupies itself with the entire French Heroes' La Fayette Memorial Fund, each branch of which has its own separate committee.
The headquarters of the New York Committee is at 2 West 45th Street.
Marceau (Avenue) --- (VIII and XVI).
Called Avenue Josephine till 1879; the following Ministers Plenipotentiary of the United States have lived here :
No. 45. ---In 1880, General Edward F. Noyes.
No. 58. ---In 1893, J. B. Eustis.
No. 59. ---In 1869, E. B. Washburne.
No. 70. ---In 1887-1888, Robert M. MacLane, and in 1889, Whitelaw Reid.
Marignan (Rue de) --- (VIII).
No. 3. ---The Legation of the United States was here installed in 1861 and 1862.
Marigny (Avenue) --- (VIII).
No. 7. ---General Lewis Cass, United States Minister Plenipotentiary lived here in 1840.
Mathurins (Rue des) --- (VIII)From 1802 to 1809 C. Fulwar Skipwith lived at No. 1466 (former) of the Rue Neuve des Mathurins, which is now that part of the Rue des Mathurins comprised between the Rue Scribe and the Rue de l'Arcade.
Matignon (Avenue) --- (VIII).
No. 17. --Was inhabited in 1839 by General Lewis Cass, United States Minister Plenipotentiary.
Matignon (Rue) --- (VIII).
No. 5. ---Was inhabited in 1847 by R. Rush, United States Minister Plenipotentiary.
No. 17. ---This hôtel, partly demolished some years ago, was inhabited at the time of the Revolution by the Comte Jean-Axel de Fersen (1750-1810), son of the Swedish Marshal; his devotion to Queen Marie Antoinette, whom he tried in vain to save, has made him celebrated. Fersen took part, as aide-de-camp to Rochambeau, in the American War, in the course of which he became very intimate with Lauzun; the latter even offered to give up his legion to him.
No. 19. ---Also served as a dwelling, towards the middle of the XIXth Century for several Ministers and Chargés d'Affaires of the United States at Paris : from 1848 to 1850 by W. C. Rives; in 1853, H. Shelton Sanford, and in 1854, John Mason.
Ménilmontant (Boulevard de) --- (XX).
Cemetery of the East, called the Père La Chaise.
This cemetery, the most ancient in Paris, contains some tombs of Americans, among whom may be remarked :
a ). ---43rd Division (3rd line, opposite 42d Division, No. 2).
Tomb of William Temple Franklin, the grandson of Benjamin Franklin, who died at Paris the 25th May 1823 ; the tomb bears the following inscription: "He was ever worthy of a name which dies out with him."
b). ---70th Division (19th line, opposite 68th Division, No. 3).
Tomb of A. Gouverneur Gill, United States Consul, buried the 6th January, 1881.
Michel-Ange (Rue) --- (XVI).
No. 6. ---Inhabited by Marshal Joffre, who took part in the Viviani mission sent in 1917 to the United States by the French Government.
Monceau (Rue de) --- (VIII).
No. 28. ---Hôtel of Prince and Princess Murat, built in 1850, where President Wilson resided during his first stay in Paris, from his arrival, December 14th, 1918, till the 14th February 1919, It is interesting to recall, à propos of this subject, that, in 1815, when the members of the Bonaparte family were banished from France, the United States welcomed them favourably. During his stay in Washington Prince Achille Murat married an American, Miss Fraser.
Monsieur (Rue) --- (VII).
No. 8. ---In this hôtel, built in 1789 for the Comte de Jarnac, Albert Gallatin, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, lived in 1822 and 1823.
Monsieur-le-Prince (Rue) --- (VI).
No. 49. ---Henry W. Longfellow, 1807-1882, arrived in Paris in the summer of 1826, and lodged at 49 Rue Monsieur-le-Prince, in a boarding-house for students, for 5 francs a day. Longfellow, who knew very little French, followed central university courses. Although the streets of Paris seemed to him very narrow, he was very fond of the Boulevards and of certain places, such as the Louvre and Père La Chaise. He went to pass the summer at Auteuil in a nursing-home which he took for a private hôtel ; he was very happy there during his stay of a month. After a short journey to Touraine he came back to Paris where he passed eight months, assisting at seances of the Institut and visiting the country round about Paris, It was at this time that he met La Fayette. He was then living at 5 Rue Racine. Longfellow then went to Spain, travelled in Europe, then returned, after an absence of three years, to America, where he was made Professor at Harvard College.
Longfellow returned to Paris September 3rd, 1836. In June 1842 he made a third visit to Paris where he stayed only four days ; he went to see Rachel play, and dined with Jules Janin, author of a book entitled "The American in Paris." He canae back a fourth time to Paris, attracted by the Théâtre-Française, in the autumn of 1868, when he made a short stay before going to Italy.
Montaigne (Avenue) --- (VIII).
No. 11. ---Was the hôtel of Ferdinand de Lesseps (1805-1894) , who founded the company of the inter-oceanic Canal of Panama ; the licence for this was bought by the United States, the level canal having been proved impossible, the company not having any more means of constructing the canal with the necessary locks. The company was liquidated the 4th February, 1889. It is interesting to recollect that de Lesseps was the nephew of a companion of the celebrated navigator La Pérouse.
No. 45. ---House occupied during the war by officers of the American Army in France,
Montmartre (Boulevard)> --- (IX and II)
Robert R. Livingston, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, lived in 1804 at the furnished Hôtel Montholon, on the Boulevard Montmartre.
Montmartre (Rue) --- (II).
No. 118.--- On the site of this house stood, before the Revolution, the office of the company of the slave-traders who transported the "ebony" of Africa into America.
Mont-Thabor (Rue du) --- (I).
No. 4. ---Washington Irving lived here in 1824. He assisted during that year at the funeral of Louis XVIII, and terminated "The Tales of a Traveller"; he was presented to Talma by John Howard Payne, who lived in Paris. It was at the house of Talma that he became acquainted with Thomas Moore. His first stay in Paris was from May 1805 till February 1806, the date on which he set out again for America; he came back to Paris in July 1823, and only left there, at the end of 1824, to go to Spain. He went back to New York in May 1832.
Muette (Château de la) --- (XVI).
On November 21st, 1783 Franklin assisted, at the Château de la Muette, at the ascension of the Marquis d'Arlandes and of Pilâtre de Rozier, the first time that men went up in a balloon. He signed the statement of the ascent with the Duc de Polignac, the Duc de Guisnes, the Comte de Polastron, the Comte de Vaudreuil, M. M. d'Hunaud, Fanjus de St. Fond, Delisle and Le Roz de 1'Académie des Sciences. An engraving of the time represents the ascent "seen from the terrace of Mr. Franklin at Passy. . . ." The following saying about balloons was attributed to Franklin, some one having said one day before him contemptuously: "Of what use is this new invention?" And he to answer: "Of what use is a new-born child?"
Musée de l'Armée.
I. Section of Arms and Armour.
First floor to the right: Ethnographical Gallery.
This collection comprises in particular types of American warriors. The figures in painted plaster reproduce types taken from nature from the Anthropological Gallery in the Jardin des Plantes. In front of the windows are glass cases containing arms and various objects.
II. Historical Section.
Salle Louis XIV. Fifth bay. To the right. Flag offered in 1906 in memory of the services rendered by France during the War of Independence (1776-1783), by the Society of the Daughters of the Revolution, section of Maryland. Portraits of Washington, Rochambeau, La Fayette. An English mortar taken at Yorktown in 1781.
To the left: Portrait of the Duc de Broglie, who took part in the American War.
Notre-Dame --- (IV).
The admirable cathedral has been the setting of a little known event in the diplomatic relations between France and the United States.
When the news of the capitulation of Burgoyne reached Paris it did away with much hesitation on the part of the Court of Versailles about concluding an official alliance with the United States and of breaking with England. Franklin made short work of matters. He one day told the Comte de Vergennes, Minister of Foreign Affairs, the following tale : An emissary of the court of London, said he, had given him a rendezvous for a near date in the Church of Notre Dame, near the statue of St. Christopher ; this agent was to have in his hand, as a sign by which he could be recognised, a rose which he would let fall as soon as Franklin should appear. It was agreed between Vergennes and Franklin that the latter should not go to the rendezvous, but that the Lieutenant of Police should send someone to keep an eye on the English emissary. The man with the rose arrived at the rendezvous, then went away after waiting a half-hour! He was followed; he walked a little while about the streets, and finally entered a furnished hôtel in the Rue du Colombier (now Rue Jacob), had post horses saddled and started again on the road to Calais, under the discreet eye of the watcher who had no doubt that he had sent the man mentioned by Franklin about his business.
This artifice was naturally not sufficient, and it is now known how the American commissaries triumphed over the last, and also feeble, hesitations of Louis XVI and of his minister Maurepas.
On the 14th of December 1783 a solemn Te Deum was sung at Notre Dame in honour of the Peace of Versailles. Let us recall also that in one of the chapels surrounding the choir of Notre Dame is the tomb of Mgr. Darboy, Archbishop of Paris, shot during the Commune in 1871, and in whose favor Washburne, United States Ambassador, intervened during his detention.
Notre-Dame des Champs (Rue) --- (VI).
No. 60. ---Here is situated the Passage Stanislas in which was opened, at the end of 1898, an Academy of Art under the name of "Académie Whistler," and under the direction, of Carmen Rossi, favourite model of the celebrated painter. Whistler and the sculptor MacMonnies gave classes here.
No. 86. ---In this house Whistler had established, in 1892, his engraving machinery on the sixth floor in a large studio whose bay window looked onto the Panthéon and onto the Luxembourg Gardens.
Odéon (Place de l') --- (VI).
Théâtre de l'Odéon. ---On the evening of Monday, 20th January, 1783, the first representation of "King Lear," a tragedy of Ducis in imitation of Shakespeare, had ended at the Théâtre-Française (now Théâtre de l'Odéon), in the midst of applause, when the curtain rose and the actor Molé appeared on the scene. "Gentlemen," said he simply, "we shall have the honour to give you on Wednesday the second representation of 'King Lear,' followed by the recapture of the English at Bordeaux, on the occasion of the Peace." It was thus, in the midst of great applause, that the elite of Paris learned the victorious end of the American War. As a matter of fact, that afternoon had been signed at Versailles the preliminaries of peace, which received, the 3rd of September following, its definitive form.
During the Revolution, when the Odéon still bore the name of "Théâtre de la Nation," a tragedy in four acts was represented there, entitled "Washington, or the Liberty of the New World," by M. de Sauvigny; the first representation took place 13th July, 1791. One of the actors of the piece, "The Ambassador of France," terminated the tragedy by a eulogy of Washington and of Franklin, "who directed the thunderbolt and chased away the tyrants," of Congress and of all the American people.
Odéon. (Rue de l') --- (VI).
No. 2. ---Thomas Paine lived, from April 1797 to October 1802, at No. 4, now No. 2 of the Rue du Théâtre-Français, now Rue de l'Odéon. He lodged at the house of Nicolas Bonneville, his printer and his friend, where Joel Barlow and Fulton came to see him. He frequented also an Irish café of the Rue de Condé, where English, Irish and Americans met.
Opéra (Avenue de l') --- (II).
No. 36. ---Was occupied by the Consulate of the United States from 1887 to 1917.
No. 47. ---Office of the New York World, founded in Paris in 1910.
No. 49. ---Office of the New York Herald.
James Gordon Bennett was the first who understood the capital importance, for an American newspaper, of direct information coming from Paris, the centre of European news; he founded in Paris, in October 1885, the Paris edition of the New York Herald.
Beside the office of the New York Herald stands the information office of the Commercial Cable Company (administration : 9 Rue Louis-le-Grand).
Opéra (Place de l') --- (II and IX).
Opéra (Théâtre de l').
Since 1875, date at which the building was finished, the Opéra has been the setting for many manifestations of sympathy between France and the United States.
On April 23d, 1876, a representation was given there for the profit of the fêtes of the Centenary of the Independence of the United States ; five hundred chorists there executed a chorus of Gounod's, under the direction of the celebrated composer himself.
On January 24th, 1919, a gala representation was given to President Wilson, before whom was presented Castor and Pollux.
No. 4. ---In 1858, at the moment of the creation of the Place, the Franco-American Club, called the Washington Club, was situated at No. 4 of the Place de l'Opéra.
Orsay (Quai d') --- (VII).
No. 33. ---Palais-Bourbon.
The present hall of the meetings was built in 1829 on the site of a former hall built in 1798, in which La Fayette sat from 1818 till 1824, as député of La Sarthe; he occupied a chair at the extreme left (looking from the tribune) sometimes on the fifth and sometimes on the sixth row.
On Wednesday the 20th of November 1918, the French Chamber of Deputies voted here the following order of the day: "President Wilson and the American nation, the Allied nations and the Heads of the States who govern them have merited well of humanity."
The 3rd of February 1919 a solemn reception was offered there by the Chambre des Députés to President Wilson, who responded by a discourse to the speech of welcome which the President of the Chambre, M. Paul Deschanel, addressed to him.
No. 37. ---Ministère des Affaires Etrangères.
It is in the archives of the Ministère des Affaires Etrangères that are preserved the originals of the treaties concluded between France and the United States since 1776, as well as the treaties signed in France by the United States, such as that of Paris of 1898 which terminated the Spanish-American War, and that of Versailles of the 28th of June 1919.
In one of the rooms of the Ministère, also, is preserved the desk used by the Comte de Vergennes who signed with Franklin the treaty of 1783.
The Treaty of Peace between Spain and the United States was signed the 19th December 1898 in the Salle dea Conférences of the Ministère des Affaires Etrangères. The American Commissioners were:
Secretary of State William R. Day of Ohio.
Senator George Gray of Delaware.
Whitelaw Reid of New York.
Senator William P. Fry of Maine.
Senator Cushman of Minnesota.
The opening meeting of the work of the Inter-Allied Conference of the preliminaries of Peace took place the 18th of January 1919 in the Salle de 1'Horloge, which dates from the Second Empire, and of which can be seen from the outside its five windows, on the ground floor, immediately to the right of the left wing.
The first preparatory conferences and certain meetings of the Inter-Allied Council of War were held in the office of the Minister for Foreign Affairs which opens onto the interior garden, on the ground floor. President Wilson, H. White, R. Lansing, E. House, and General Bliss took part in them as United States delegates.
No. 105. ---National Property.
The collections of National Property comprise a series of six sketches for tapestry, four of which bear on the American War; the central subjects are from the painter Le Paon, who is the author of a very fine portrait of La Fayette; the lower medallions appear to be the work of Casanova. The cartoons, which must have been prepared for the Gobelins or for Beauvais after the peace of 1783, represent the military incidents of Yorktown, Brimston Hill, Pensacola and Grenade. The drawings of the two other sketches, which are those of an amateur, represent the "taking of the Grenade" and "the attack of Brimstone Hill." None of these tapestries, with the Royal Arms of France, appear to have been put on the loom, the arrival of the Revolution having doubtless prevented the realisation of this idea.
Oudinot (Rue) --- (VII)
No. 27. ---Ministtre des Colonies.
This ministry, which occupies the former Hôtel de Montmorin, successor of the Comte de Vergennes at the Affaires Etrangères, still preserves in its archives documents bearing on the former French possessions of Louisiana and New Orleans.
Paix (Rue de la) --- (II).
No. 2. ---Office of the New York American.
No. 23. ---Building belonging to the Equitable Trust Company United States whose offices are here installed.
Palais (Boulevard du) --- (I).
The Palais de Justice, composed of constructions of different periods from the XIIIth Century to the present time, was in 1777 the theatre of a manifestation in honour of Franklin. Since his arrival in Paris he had quickly become extremely popular. One day when they were pleading a great cause at the Palais de Justice before the Parliament of Paris, and while the neighbouring streets were full of curious people, they saw Franklin arrive, dressed very simply as usual ; they opened their ranks respectfully before him, and he went to take the place which was reserved for him, in the midst of the cheering crowd, an honour which was not always given then even to princes of the blood.
This popularity caused Franklin to write, "I am the absolute doll of the people of Paris who curl me, deck me out, crown me and play with me in the most agreeable manner in the world: they have lavished so much on my bust that if a price were put on my head it would be impossible for me to escape."
Palais-Royal --- (I) .
Franklin was received here in 1778 by Louis Philippe, fourth Duc d'Orléans (1725-1785).
His son, Louis Philippe (1747-1793), fifth Duc d'Orléans, who bore till 1785 the title of Duc de Chartres, received here in 1777 Paul Jones on his arrival from America, in the apartments which he occupied in the lateral wings of the first courtyard on the Place du Palais-Royal. Paul Jones, who often walked in the garden of the Palais Royal with Franklin, was invited by the Duke to a dinner given in his honour, in the course of which the Duchesse de Chartres, who always showed him a particular friendship, offered him a watch which had belonged to her grandfather, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, Comte de Toulouse, the conqueror of the English Admiral Rooke, in 1704, in the environs of Malaga ; Paul Jones promised in exchange to put an enemy frigate at her feet. It was the Duchess who, shortly afterwards, presented to Louis XVI a letter from Paul Jones, who wished to obtain a command at sea; the admiral received that of the "Duras," a flagship, whose name he changed to "Bonhomme Richard"; one of the ships of his squadron was called the "Monsieur," and had been offered to him by the ladies of the Court of Versailles. At one of his other journeys to Paris the Duchess de Chartres put 9,500 livres at the disposition of Paul Jones, then in April 1780 gave a dinner and a ball in honour of him whom she called "the untitled Knight of the Sea" and "the Sailor Bayard." During this dinner Paul Jones sent for the sword which had been delivered up to him by the English commander of the "Serapis," and, turning to the Duchess, said to her : "The least that I can do towards keeping my word given two years ago is to place in your delicate hands the sword of the brave officer who commanded the English for forty-four years. I have the honour to offer to the most charming of women the sword which was delivered up to me by one of the bravest of men, the sword of the honourable Richard Pearson of the former ship of His Britannic Majesty, the 'Serapis.'"
Gouveneur Morris was also received at dinner at the Palais-Royal; he particularly relates in his journal that he was invited there the 10th of November 1790, by the Duchesse d'Orléans, to whom he brought from London a large Newfoundland dog which he had bought for her. The Duc and the Duchesse d'Orléans occupied at that date the large apartments which are situated in the right wing of the courtyard of honour, called de Valois, occupied now by the Direction des Beaux-Arts, from the great staircase as far as the garden. The Duc continually occupied the arcades 178, 179, 180, communicating on a level with the apartments of the Duchesse d'Orléans on the courtyard and on the Rue de Valois.
The Palais-Royal was likewise, in 1854, the residence of Prince Jérôme Bonaparte whose descendants have remained settled in the United States. During his stay in America he married at Baltimore, 24th December 1803, Elizabeth Patterson (1785-1879) ; from this union, which Napoléon I refused to recognise, was born Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte (1805-1870), who married November 3rd, 1829, Susan May (1812-1881), daughter of Benjamin Williams, whose children were:
First. ---Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte, born at Baltimore in 1830, died 1893 ; he entered first the American Army, where he remained only two years, then he joined the French Army, where he made most of the campaigns of the Second Empire. He married, 7th September 1871, Catherine Le Roy, daughter of Samuel Appleton, who died in 1911, by whom he had two children, Louise Eugenie Bonaparte (1873-), who married the Comte de Moltke Huitfeld, of Denmark, and Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte (1878-).
Second. ---Charles Joseph Bonaparte, born 1851, who married, the 1st of September 1875, Ellen Channing. He filled the post of Secretary of the Navy from July 1905 to December 1906, and that of Attorney-General of the United States from December 1906 to March 1909.
The bedroom of Prince Jérôme Bonaparte exists still; it is now used as a waiting room by the Direction des Beaux-Arts (entry at No. 3 Rue de Valois).
Galérie de Montpensier (at the west) .
No. 17. ---Curtius had established his famous "Museum of Wax Figures" at No. 1 of the Galérie de Pierre, now No. 17 of the Galérie de Montpensier; during the whole of the Revolution he maintained public curiosity by exposing the effigies of persons made famous by current events : Franklin and Voltaire were side by side with Mirabeau, Brutus, Lucrèce, Necker and Robespierre. Curtius had likewise a second "wax-work cabinet" on the Boulevard du Temple, especially reserved for celebrated criminals.
Nos. 57 to 60. ---Site of the Café Foy, before which, on the 13th of July 1789, Camille Desmoulins harangued the mob, and apprised it with the dismissal of the minister Necker. It is curious to recall on this subject the following detail which shows how strong, at this moment, was the influence of American ideas in France. When Camille Desmoulins proposed to the crowd to wear a cockade and asked which colour to choose it, they answered that he should make the choice himself. He offered then to take either "green, colour of hope, or blue of Cincinnatus, the colour of American liberty and of democracy". It was green which carried the day.
A statue of Camille Desmoulins, by E. Boverie, has been erected between the South plot and the Galerie d'Orléans.
Galerie de Valois (to the East).
John Howard Payne, who lived many years in Paris, had one of his dwellings at the Palais-Royal in the Galérie des Bons Enfants, now Galérie de Valois ; it was there that he wrote "Home, Sweet Home."
No. 156. ---Here was situated, during the Revolution, the anti-revolutionary club of Valois, which was frequented by Gouveneur Morris.
Panoramas (Passage des) --- (II).
This passage was built about 1808 on the site of the old Hôtel de Montmorency-Luxembourg. It owes its name to two rotundas, of 14 metres in diameter, which stood on each side of the Boulevard Montmartre, and on which were painted panoramas; these panoramas had been made in 1799 by Robert Fulton during the stay which he made in Paris from 1797 to 1804; they disappeared in 1821. Fulton, who had commenced by being a distinguished painter, painted one of these panoramas ; the subject represented the burning of Moscow, naturally, not that one showing the departure of Napoléon from that capital, but a previous fire which had ravaged the town in the XVIIth Century. This panorama was later replaced by another, on the same spot. Fulton had obtained, in 1801, a prolongation of fifteen years of his concession for the perfecting of his system of panoramas.
Pantheon (Place du) --- (V).
The popularity of La Fayette was such that, during his lifetime, the celebrated sculptor, David d'Angers, made him figure among the great men in the bas-relief above the entry to the Pantheon, as well as in the bas-reliefs of his monuments of General Foy and of Gutenberg.
To the Pantheon were transported the remains of Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811) who, after having fought under Montcalm in Canada, was made famous by his voyage around the world, executed from 1766 to 1769. During the American War he commanded a division of the Fleet of the Comte de Grasse.
No. 10. Faculty de Droit.
Courses of lectures have been given here by American professors, particularly in 1904-1905 by Charles F. Beach, secretary of the United States College at Paris, and, in 1919-1920, by Dean Henry A. Yeomans, professor in exchange of the Harvard endowment.
Passy (Quai de) --- (XVI).
No. 32. ---Site of the old "wells" of Passy, the ferruginous springs which still exist, and which enjoyed a great vogue in the XVIIIth Century. Franklin was very intimate with the director, Le Veillard, to whom he sent a copy of the manuscript ol his memoirs. Le Veillard left Paris with him in 1785 to accompany his old friend as far as the Havre. Elected Mayor of Passy in February 1790, he was guillotined the following year.
Passy (Rue de) --- (XVI).
Admiral d'Estaing possessed, somewhere about No. 70, a country seat which was demolished about 1855 for the piercing of the Rue Guichard.
Paul Déroulède (Avenue) --- (I).
This street follows along the frontage of the old Palais des Tuileries, begun in 1564 by Catherine de Medicis, and burnt in 1871 during the Commune. Some souvenirs interesting to Americans are attached to the old Tuileries.
To begin with, that of Franklin, who offered to Louis XVI a copy of the "Constitution of the United States," bound with the Royal Arms. This book, which the King placed in his library at the Tuileries, and which is now in America, has a legend. During the pillage of the Palace in 1792, this book was thrown out of a window, and, by a curious chance, it violently hit a young American, Robert Gil-more, of Baltimore, who assisted at the sacking, and who bore it away as a souvenir.
From the 10th of May 1793 the Convention sat in the Salle des Machines of the Palais des Tuileries, which was situated almost between the Rue de Rivoli and the middle of the Rue des Tuileries; the souvenirs of Paine and of Monroe are worthy of recall here. In the course of the trial of Louis XVI, Paine voted for the detention of the King while the war should last, and his banishment afterwards; he insisted that Louis XVI should take refuge in the United States. At the moment of the vote on the death of the King he gave the opinion that the United States would disapprove the death of their benefactor. This courageous attitude and the "Age of Reason" which he wrote that year caused him to be disliked by Robespierre and Marat, who denounced his efforts to save the life of the King who had been the friend of America. On the 25th of December 1793, on proposal of Barrère, the Convention decided that "no foreigner could be admitted to represent the French people." The 27th of December following Thomas Paine was arrested and shut up in the Luxembourg; a petition asking for his release, signed by eighteen notable Americans of Paris, was presented by them without result to the Convention, the 27th of January 1794. Restored to liberty, thanks to the demands of Monroe, Paine was again received at the Convention; he mounted the tribune the 7th of July 1795, and a secretary, placed beside him, read his speech on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Constitution. This was his last appearance, owing to the bad state of his health.
James Monroe had succeeded Gouveneur Morris as Minister Plenipotentiary to Paris, where he arrived after the fall of Robespierre. All the other ambassadors had left and the Comité de Salut Public were slow to receive him. Monroe was at length introduced at the Tuileries, before the Convention, the 2d of August 1794; he showed distinctly the political bases common to the two Republics in his speech, which lasted ten minutes, and was printed in English and in French by order of the Convention. Merlin de Douai, President of the Assembly, gave him the fraternal embrace. One day Monroe offered to the Convention an American flag, which his nephew brought, at the head of an American delegation, on the occasion of the translation to the Panthéon of the remains of Jean Jacques Rousseau.
To that part of the Palais des Tuileries which was inhabited by Napoléon I and Napoléon III is also attached the remembrance of many members of the Bonaparte family who went to America: Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844), eldest brother of Napoléon I, retired to the United States after the Emperor's abdication, under the name of Comte de Survillers, and occupied himself with agriculture till 1826, at which date he went back to Belgium ; Lucien Bonaparte (1773-1840), younger brother of Napoléon I, set out for the United States in 1810, was captured at sea by the English, who assigned to him the residence of Ludlow, bought near that town the property of Tomgrave, and recovered his liberty in 1814; the eldest son of Lucien, Charles Lucien Bonaparte (1803-1857), in 1822 married his cousin Zénaïde, daughter of Joseph Bonaparte, and went to live with her near his father-in-law in the United States, where he published several works, in particular an "American Ornithology" and an "Ornithology of North America"; the third son of Lucien, Pierre Napoléon Bonaparte (1815-1881), went in 1832 to join his uncle Joseph in the United States, followed to Colombia the Republican General Santander, came back to Italy where he had some disputes with the Pope in 1836, and suffered at the Château Saint-Ange a rather long imprisonment, following which he returned a second time to America. Jérôme Bonaparte (1784-1860), King of Westphalia, the youngest brother of Napoléon I, who had taken part in the Saint Dominique expedition, married in 1813, in the United States, Miss Patterson of Baltimore; Napoléon Bonaparte (1822-1891), second son of Jérôme, embarked in July 1869 with the Princess Clothilde, arrived at New York at the end of August, from where he travelled incognito through a large part of the United States, visiting Washington, where he was received by President Lincoln, then from the camp of the Federals on the Potomac he passed with a safe conduct over to the territory occupied by the Confederates, and visited the secessionist General Beauregard; finally Napoléon III (1818-1873), born at the Tuileries, was, after his attempted rising of Strasbourg in 1836, sent by the Government of Louis-Philippe to Lorient to be embarked for America; he was sent to Brazil, then to New York, from whence he soon afterwards returned to Europe.
It is interesting to recall that after Waterloo Napoléon I could have embarked at Bordeaux on an American boat. It was proposed to him to take the place of his brother Joseph, who had prepared his own departure and had obtained a passport from the United States Chargé d' Affaires at Paris. Napoléon refused, and preferred leaving his fate to be settled by England.
Under the Monarchy of July (1830-1848) several celebrated Americans, such as N. P. Willis, Fenimore Cooper, and Samuel F. B. Morse, were presented at the Tuileries to King Louis-Philippe, who had visited the United States in 1796, and whom it was so easy to approach that the American Ambassador, General Lewis Cass, could present to him the same evening fifty of his fellow-countrymen. When Fenimore Cooper was presented to the King and to the Queen Marie Amélie, we are told that the latter, born a Princess of the Two Sicilies, asked him which he preferred of all the countries he had visited. Cooper answered : "That one in which Your Majesty was born because of its Nature, and that one in which Your Majesty reigns for its society."
Two grandsons of Louis-Philippe, who passed several years in America, were born in the Tuileries : Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Comte de Paris (1838-1894), and Robert d'Orléans Duc de Chartres (1842-19 ), both sons of the Duc d'Orléans (1810-1842). They took part in the War of Secession in the ranks of the Federal Army from September 1861, the date on which they entered on the Staff of General McClellan ; they made the Campaign of Virginia, assisting at the siege of Yorktown, then at the battles of Williamsburg, of Fair Oaks and of Gaines Mill, and finally followed the Army of the Potomac as far as the banks of the James River where they left it to return to France. In this campaign they were accompanied by their uncle, Francois d'Orléans, Prince de Joinville, whose son, the Duc de Penthièvre, entered as a pupil at the Naval School of the Union.
The last official dinner given at the Tuileries June 7th, 1870, was in honour of E. B. Washburne, United States Minister, and Napoléon III recalled on that occasion that his grandfather, the Vicomte de Beauharnais, had fought for American Independence.
Pavilion de l'Horloge.
The Academy of Sciences, of which Benjamin Franklin was an associate member, occupied many rooms of the present Museum from 1699 to 1793.
During his stay in Paris it was here that Franklin came to assist at the meetings, and to participate in the work of the Academy, which had then at its disposition, on the first floor of the Pavilion de l'Horloge, the room which now bears the name of Dr. La Caze, the room following which is called Salle Henri II, the Salle des Sept Cheminées, and a small corner room on the facade fronting the Seine.
On the 29th April 1778 the Academy of Sciences held a meeting here at which Voltaire and Franklin assisted seated near each other. The public applauded their entry into the hall and cheered them ; both of them saluted, and, to please the audience, they shook hands "à l'Anglaise," but the public cried out : "No ! no ! You must embrace 'à la Française.'" The two old men did not hesitate to comply, and the next day all the gazettes recounted, according to the style of the period, that "Solon and Sophocles had kissed each other."
In March 1784 when the Government asked the Société Royale de Médecine (become since then the Académie de Médecine) for a report on the experiments in magnetism of Mesmer, a commission was formed by five members of the Académie des Sciences, among whom were Franklin, Le Roy, Bailly and Lavoisier; this commission concluded, in the August following, that the facts cited by Mesmer could be explained by suggestion.
Franklin never ceased to occupy himself with scientific work during his stay in Paris. With Abbé Nollet he succeeded in transmitting the electric current by means of metallic wires, and combined some interruptions which, according to their length, corresponded to the letters of the alphabet; it was the basis of discoveries which another American, S. F. Breese Morse, was to pursue later on successfully, and which he, by a curious coincidence, came to Paris to experiment with.
On November 13th, 1790, Condorcet pronounced before the Académie des Sciences a eulogy of Franklin full of interesting details.
It was here also that Thomas Paine came, in the Summer of 1787, to propose to the Académie a system of a bridge of his invention; he was received with great respect, not only as the friend of Franklin, but as a Member of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia and of the University of Pennsylvania. His model of a bridge was approved by the Académie.
Penthièvre (Rue de) --- (VIII).
No. 11.--- The United States Legation occupied this house in 1851 and 1852.
No. 26. ---Supposed house of Franklin who is said to have lived there in 1776 when it was called the Grande Rue Verte.
It has been contested that Franklin either built or utilised this house for a questionable purpose; but it is possible that it was built by or lived in by one of his admirers, and this legend arises from the fact that William Temple Franklin, his grandson, was the owner of a house situated at the present Nos. 4 and 6.
The painter John Trumbull dined at No. 26 with Madame de Staël during his sojourn at Paris, when the house belonged to Lucien Bonaparte. The latter lived, at the end of the garden, in a little house, which has preserved a curious dressing room decorated with a cupola-shaped ceiling.
Pereire (Boulevard) --- (XVII).
The sculptor Augustus Saint Gaudens had a studio next to the hôtel of Madame Sarah Bernhardt.
No. 56. ---Hôtel of Mme. Sarah Bernhardt.
Petits-Pères (Rue des) --- (II).
No. 1. ---On his return from England, 19th September 1792, Thomas Paine went to l'Hôtel White; he stayed there only a short time, and afterwards lived quite near at No. 7 of the Passage des Petits-Pères ; it is now No. 1 of the Rue des Petits-Pères, which was probably joined at that date to l'Hôtel White, afterwards called Hôtel de Philadelphie, and later, Hôtel des Etats-Unis. Paine lived there till March 1793.
Paine had come to Paris for the first time in March 1781 with Colonel Laurens, chief of the Washington Staff, to conclude a loan in favour of the United States. He had had the idea of this loan, and he urged it on Congress, who decided to send to Paris Colonel Laurens whom Paine accompanied as his secretary. Having left Boston in February 1781, they arrived in Paris the following month. Their mission was carried out successfully, and a French frigate brought them from Brest to Boston with money and ammunition. It was this loan which permitted Rochambeau and Washington to inflict on Cornwallis the defeat of Yorktown.
In the Summer of 1787 Paine returned to Paris to present to the Académie des Sciences a project for a bridge of his invention ; the Académie received him with honour and approved his system of a bridge, which a little later he applied in London. He went several times to England. It was on the occasion of one of his stays in Paris, the 25th of June 1791, that he assisted at the return of the King from Varennes, and this spectacle aroused in him a sorrowful sympathy for the Royal Family. Paine had forgotten to place a tricolour cockade in his hat and the mob played him an ugly trick by crying out "Aristocrat ! to the lamp- post !" A Frenchman who spoke English came to his rescue by explaining the situation to his aggressors.
Picpus (Rue de) --- (XII).
No. 55. ---Oratory of Picpus which served as Chapel to the Convent of the Dames du Sacre-Cœur de Jesus et de Marie, called Les Dames de l'Adoration Perpetuelle. At the end of the garden stands the enclosure, called the Cemetery of Picpus, where are buried the 1340 victims guillotined in 1793 at the Place du Trône-renversé (now Place du Trône). It was, at that time, the convent of nuns, canonesses of Saint Augustin. This cemetery was created to replace that of Sainte Marguerite, in the Rue Saint-Bernard, the inhabitants of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine having energetically protested against the continuation of burials in the latter. The site of this common grave was indicated by a poor working-girl, whose father, servant of the Duc de Brissac, and brother had been buried there. The Princesse de Hohenloe, sister of the Prince de Salm Kyrburg, the same whose hôtel Jefferson so much liked to contemplate from the Terrace of the Tuileries, secretly bought the ground and had it surrounded by walls. The cemetery was afterwards bought in 1802 by the Marquise de Montagu-Noailles, daughter of the Duchesse d'Ayen, one of the victims, and by Mme. Le Rebours, whose husband, the President Le Rebours, had been likewise buried there. On a black marble slab, placed near the entrance gate, are inscribed the names of those who rest in this enclosure, among others the poet André Chenier.
Next to the cemetery follows another little funeral enclosure where the families of the victims were authorised to be buried near them. It is in this second part, and at the end of it, that the tomb of General La Fayette is to be found. His wife had preceded him there, and it is there that he desired to be buried. His tomb was covered with earth that he had brought from America.
General Pershing came especially to lay a crown of roses on the tomb of La Fayette, the 15th of June 1917. The Marquis de Chambrun, a descendant of La Fayette, evoked in a few words the old friendship which joins America and France. General Pershing replied : "It is for me a great pleasure to have had occasion to visit the tomb of General La Fayette who did so much for America. We are happy to pay our tribute to his memory and to thus tighten still more the bonds which unite our two great nations." Tradition has it that he here pronounced the words, henceforth historic: "La Fayette, we have come."
President Wilson also came to bow before this tomb the 15th of December 1918.
Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Mottier, Marquis de La Fayette, born September 6th, 1757 at the Château de Chavagnac (Haute Loire), was garrisoned at Metz, when, in the month of August, 1775, during a dinner at the house of his relative, the Maréchal de Broglie, he became angry at hearing the Duke of Gloucester, brother of King George III, travelling through that town, speak of the insurgents. He himself said : "My heart was enrolled, and I could dream only of uniting my flags to theirs." He made the acquaintance of Baron de Kalb, an officer serving in the French Army, and sent, under Louis XV, to America by Choiseul: the latter presented him to Franklin and to Silas Deane, Recommended by Franklin to Congress, he succeeded in escaping the ambushes which had been set for him to prevent his departure. The minister, Maurepas, tried vainly to stop him, and, the 24th March 1777, the vessel "La Victoire," which La Fayette had just bought at Bordeaux, left Pauillac, on the "Gironde," and sailed for Pasajes, from whence he soon after sailed to America. In the United States La Fayette received the rank and the commission of Major General in the American Army. There is no need to recall the part he played during the War of Independence.
He returned to France in 1779 to ask the aid necessary to help the United States. The despatch of Rochambeau's Army, placed under the orders of Washington, was the answer to this appeal. La Fayette returned in 1780 to America, from whence he made a second voyage to Europe, which had for result the declaration of war by Spain upon England. Finally, after the Peace of Versailles, he again set out for the United States : this voyage was for him a real triumph (1784-1785) .
La Fayette played an important part in the French Revolution. It was he who sent to Washington the keys of the principal gate of the Bastille, after the 14th of July 1789. He was accused of having aided in the King's flight to Varennes. Little by little he lost his popularity. Discouraged, threatened with poverty, he left, in August, 1792, the troops that he commanded, and sought refuge in a neutral country. Arrested by an Austrian outpost, he was shut up as a prisoner of state in the fortress of Olmütz from whence the urgent protests of the American Government caused him to be delivered at the moment of the Treaty of Campo Formio, in 1797. Having returned to Paris in 1799 after the "coup d'état" of 18 Brumaire, he went to reside at the Château de la Grange-Bleaneau, near Rosoy (Seine et Marne). He took no part in the political events of the Empire. He was elected deputy of the Sarthe in 1818 and represented that department till 1824.
La Fayette left Paris for the United States the 11th July 1824; there he was the "guest of the nation." During this voyage, which was nothing less than a long continuation of ovations for him, he had occasion to again see Duponceau, one of his former companions-in-arms, and General Bernard, a refugee to the United States. He returned to the Château de la Grange 9th October, 1825. After the Revolution of 1830 he was elected Commandant of the National Guard.
He died in Paris, 20th May 1834, in a house of the Rue d'Anjou, and was buried May 22d at the Cemetery of Picpus, where his tomb remains a place of pilgrimage for all Americans passing through Paris.
Pierre-Charron (Rue) --- (VIII).
No. 65. ---The United States Minister Plenipotentiary, Levi P. Morton, lived here in 1881.
No. 68. ---United States Passport Bureau (1919).
Pierre Curie (Rue) --- (V).
The University of Paris began on the immense site comprised between this street and the Rues d'Ulm and Saint-Jacques the construction of many Scientific Institutes, among them a new Institut de Chimie, for the installation of which Andrew Carnegie gave to the University of Paris the sum of 200,000 francs in 1912 and 1913.
No. 24. ---Carnegie Endowment.
Pierre Ier de Serbie (Avenue) --- (XVI).
No. 25.--- Endowment Miller-Gould, created in 1900. The house was built after the fire of the Charity Bazaar, Rue Jean-Goujon.
Pigalle (Rue) --- (IX).
No. 3. ---It was here that William Morris Hunt had a studio during his residence in Paris.
Pont-Neuf (Place du) --- (I).
Formerly Place Henri-IV. ---Nicolas-Jean-Francastel, master goldsmith, lived here in 1783, at the time of the stay which Major 1'Enfant, who traced the plan of the City of Washington, made at Paris, at the end of that year, on his return from the United States. Washington, President of the Cincinnati Society, founded in May, had asked l'Enfant to take advantage of this journey to order from some skilled Parisian jeweller the arms of that order, the designs for which he had submitted to the President. It was chiefly Francastel and another goldsmith, Duval, who were charged with the execution of this project. The making of the eagles was more costly than 1'Enfant had foreseen, and these financial difficulties caused him to shorten his stay in France. He returned in April 1784 to New York, and the Society shortly afterwards indemnified him for the losses sustained by him in buying the eagles and the insignia.
The Cincinnati Order was the first foreign Order admitted into France, by Royal command of 18th December 1783. It is well known that the question of heredity was violently debated ; Franklin, then in France, showed himself hostile to it, and persuaded Mirabeau to publish his "considerations on the Order of Cincinnatus or invitation of an Anglo-American pamphlet," a work already filled with Revolutionary ideas.
Port Mahon (Rue de --- (II).
François, Marquis de Barbe-Marbois (1745-1837), lived in 1797 in this street which had been opened two years previously through the gardens of the Duc de Richelieu. He had been Secretary of the French Legation to the United States, then Governor of Saint Dominique in 1785.
Presbourg (Rue de) --- (XVI).
No. 6. ---Was inhabited from 1863 to 1864 by W. L. Dayton, and from 1867 to 1868 by General John A. Dix, United States Minister Plenipotentiary.
Président Wilson (Avenue du) --- (XVI).
Formerly called Avenue du Trocadéro. It was thus named by a vote of the Municipal Council of Paris dated the 28th of June 1918, and was officially inaugurated under its new name the 4th of July following, on the occasion of Independence Day.
Quatre-Septembre (Rue du) --- (II).
No. 24. ---The United States Consulate General was installed here from 1884 to 1887.
Quincampoix (Rue) --- (III).
No. 65. ---House built on the site of the former Hôtel de Beaufort where were situated the offices of Law's Bank till March 1720. The Rue Quincampoix was then the meeting-place of all the speculators in shares of the Compagnie des Indes : when it was shut to them by Law they went to the Rue Vivienne, then to the Place des Victoires, and to the Hôtel de Soissons, on the site of which now stands the Bourse de Commerce.
No. 90. ---Here the watch rang the bell to warn the crowd to quit the street, when Law's Bank was established there.
Racine (Rue) --- (VI).
No. 5. ---Henry W. Longfellow dwelt here during his first voyage to Paris, in the Winter of 1826-1827,
Ranelagh --- (XVI).
In July 1778 the Lodge of the Neuf-Sœurs celebrated at Passy the feast of Saint-Jean d'Eté in honour of Franklin, who had joined this Lodge after the initiation of Voltaire. On this occasion Franklin was offered the symbolic apron which had belonged to Helvetius and which Voltaire had worn. The feast took place in the establishment of Ranelagh where there was a dancing hall and a theatre which were arranged for the circumstance.
Raspail (Boulevard) --- (VI).
No. 90. --- Office National des Universités et Ecoles Françaises.
This organisation, which occupies itself in particular with supplying French professors abroad, has obtained from the Ministère de I'lnstruction publique in France about thirty bursaries for American students: (1920) 2 for the Ecole Normale Supérieure of Sèvres, 6 for the Ecole of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and 22 for different institutions.
No. 101. ---The French Alliance. This Association has created for American students courses in the French language destined for those who, knowing only the elements of French, desire to perfect themselves in its vocabulary, grammar, composition, pronunciation, conversation, and reading.
These classes take place in the branches of the French Alliance from 8:30 till 12 in the morning, and from 2:30 till 5 in the evening.
Raynouard (Rue) --- (XVI).
Nos. 66 and 62. ---No. 66 of the Rue Raynouard marks the site of a pavilion of the old Hôtel de Valentinois that Franklin inhabited from 1777 to 1785. This site is now occupied by the Chapel of the Institution des Frères des Ecoles Chrétiennes; he dwelt also, notably in 1782, at the Hôtel de Valentinois itself, in which lived his landlord, M. Le Ray de Chaumont, who would never accept any payment as rent. This little hôtel was entered at No. 9 of the Rue de l'Annonciation ; Franklin had set up a printing press in the out-buildings.
It was at No. 62 that Franklin made his first experiments with his lightning conductor : it is curious to recall on this subject that Maximilien de Robespierre, the celebrated conventionalist, defended, in 1780, while he was notary at Saint Omer, an inhabitant of that town who had had a lightning conductor placed upon his house, considered by his neighbours as an infernal machine.
Franklin stayed three times in Paris. He came there first in September 1767, then in July 1769. He had long known French, since 1733, but he pretended to speak it with difficulty. He delivered himself into the hands of the tailors and hair-dressers who, in six days, transformed him into a "French gentleman." He was presented to Louis XV and he assisted at the King's "grand couvert."
In 1776 he reached Paris the 21st of September, and lodged first for a week in the Rue de l'Université before going to live at Passy; he thus described his dwelling-place to Mrs. Stevenson: "I am living in a pretty house situated in a fine amphitheatre-like garden, half-a-mile from Paris ; there is a large garden for me to walk in. I know crowds of people, and I dine in town six days out of the seven. I have reserved the Sundays to dine at home with Americans who pass through Paris, and that day I have my grandson Ben from school with some other American children." He there received the most distinguished men in Paris: Turgot, Buffon, d'Alembert, Condorcet, La Rochefoucauld, Malesherbes, Raynal, Mably, Beaumarchais, Mirabeau, Marat, and even the Nuncio. He frequented at Passy itself a more intimate circle: his friendship for Madame Helvetius, at whose house he dined every Saturday, is celebrated, and he had almost become a member of the Brillon family; it was for Mme. Brillon, his witty neighbour whom he visited so often, that he wrote in French his "Bagatelles." Deslon, a disciple of the famous Mesmer, whose experiments Franklin, with a learned commission, had examined, came to mesmerise a tree at Passy before Franklin.
Franklin's popularity in Paris was enormous ; admired by wise men and philosophers who compared him to Newton and to Socrates, he at once charmed both the elegant and the crowd by his good nature and by the simplicity of his bearing. If he was curled and powdered during his first voyages, in 1776, he seeks to "appear," according to his own expression, "the person the best fitted to draw upon himself general sympathy"; he went everywhere in a Quaker costume of an American countryman, his hair long, flat and without powder, covered with a fur cap, or with a little round hat; with that he wore a brown cloth coat, and large spectacles. At the Opera, at the Concert of Amateurs, at the Hôtel des Affaires Etrangères, he was cheered by the crowd, and his portrait, engraved, painted, or chiselled, can be seen everywhere with the beautiful device which Turgot had made for him "Eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis."
From the depths of his little house at Passy Franklin neglected no means of propaganda and skilfully pursued his work in favour of the American cause; he had several interviews with La Fayette before leaving for America. At Passy he often received Beaumarchais and we are told that the latter, having just heard, at Franklin's house, of the capitulation of Burgoyne, hurried into his coach so as to go and spread the news in Paris, and drove his horses so hard that the carriage was overturned and he had his arm broken.
Among the many tales which are told in connection with Franklin's stay in Passy, is that of the blessed bread which, although a Protestant, he wished to offer to the Church of Passy on the Eve of the Epiphany, and for which he had had prepared thirteen "brioches," the number equal to that of the States of the Union ; the first bore the name of Liberty, which rather scandalised the curé of Passy whom Franklin invited the night before to dinner, with the Bishop of Saintes, and that mysterious person, the Chevalier d'Eon, who passed for a woman.
It was in this little house that Franklin began to write the continuation of his Memoirs 1784, thirteen years after having started them at Twyford. The "Correspondence" that he wrote there is particularly attractive for the History of Paris and of Paris society of that epoch. The name of La Fayette is often to be found, and Franklin there relates the steps he took to have executed by the best artists of Paris the sword which Congress had voted to the latter.
Painful attacks of gout prevented Franklin from presenting himself at Versailles before his departure; the Comte de Castries, in the name of Louis XVI, sent to Passy, 10th July 1785, a portrait of the King set in a double circle of 408 diamonds of a value of fifty thousand francs. July 12th at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, he left Passy accompanied by Le Ray de Chaumont, by the latter's daughter, and by his friend Le Veillard. He travelled in a litter belonging to the Queen, borne by two mules. At Havre he was joined by Houdon, who was going to the United States to make the statue of Washington.
The news of his death, which took place 17th April 1790, reached Paris the 10th of June following. In addition to the mourning voted on that occasion by the Constituent Assembly, and to the funeral ceremony of the Halle aux Blés, which is mentioned elsewhere, numerous proofs of sympathy were then addressed to the memory of the illustrious American. On the 14th of June M. de La Rochefoucauld read at the Société of 1789 an "Essay on the Life of Franklin." The members of the Société voted a mourning of three days, and had placed in the "Salle des Séances" the bust of Franklin with this inscription: "Homage rendered by the unanimous suffrage of the 'Société' of 1789 to Benjamin Franklin, the object of the admiration and regrets of the friends of Liberty." Finally, the Society of the Printers of Paris wished to honour in its own way the memory of its glorious confrère. It met in a large hall where, on a pedestal, was placed the bust of Franklin surmounted by a civic crown, whilst one of the members of the Society pronounced the eulogy of Franklin. The speech was composed, printed, and distributed to the assembly.
Regard (Rue du) --- (VI).
No. 15. ---Site of the Hôtel de La Guiche, built in 1711, now occupied by buildings of the Crédit Municipal. See in the courtyard the plaque indicating the plan of the old Hôtel de La Guiche, one of whose façades has been rebuilt; the gates are those of the former hôtel.
It was here that General John Armstrong, United States Minister Plenipotentiary, lived in 1806 and 1807.
Reservoirs (Rue des) --- (XVI)
No. 2. ---Cemetery of Passy, opened in 1803, James Gordon Bennett, who died in Paris 21st May 1918, is buried here.
Richelieu (Rue de) --- (I and II).
This street has counted among its inhabitants many celebrated Americans and some Frenchmen, the memory of whom still lives in the United States.
François René de Chateaubriand (1768 to 1848), the illustrious writer, lived here before going to America in 1791. It is said that he had started with the idea of discovering the Northwest Passage to India, and that it was Washington, with whom he dined, who put him off this adventure. He passed more than a year in North America, visited its principal cities, and the most picturesque sites of the United States and Canada and returned to Paris at the beginning of 1792. He has made good use of the souvenirs of this voyage in several of his works : "Atala, the Adventures of the Last Abencérage," the "Natchez," the "Voyage to America," often transforming them, also, for it is doubtful if he saw, for example, the Mississippi, as he has described it, with a fauna and a flora which have never been known there, and which are due only to his imagination.
Armand Louis de Gontaut, Duc de Biron (1747-1793), known till 1788 under the name of Duc de Lauzun, was born in the Rue de Richelieu. He took an important part in the War of Independence. As soon as the despatch of French troops to America was decided, Lauzun begged as a favour to be a member of the expeditionary troops with the new corps of volunteers which he had just formed, and which were called the Foreign Volunteers of Lauzun: the entire legion, except two companies of fusiliers, embarked under his orders at Brest, 5th April 1780. Lauzun was on board the "Provence," and the band of his volunteers gave every day during the voyage a concert which the other ships drew near to hear. At Yorktown Lauzun was charged with the blockade of that part of the town situated on the right bank of the York. During the siege Lauzun fought a celebrated fight in a cavalry engagement with Colonel Tarleton, who commanded the English Dragoons. It was he who was sent to parley for the capitulation, and was then charged to bear the news of it to France. Lauzun returned to America in 1781. He there received the command of the French troops after the departure of Rochambeau, then after the Treaty of Versailles he embarked with them for France, May 11th, 1783. Among the vessels chartered to transport them Congress was anxious to give one of them the name of Lauzun. After participating in several campaigns of the Revolution Lauzun was guillotined the 31st December 1793.
No. 8. ---Hôtel du Palais-Royal, where the American University Union in Europe had its headquarters since its foundation in Paris, 6th July 1917, till the ist November 1919, at which date it was transferred to the Rue de Fleurus, opposite the Jardin du Luxembourg; from October 1917 till June 1919 about 30,000 American students, belonging to the American troops, were enrolled there.
No. 26. ---Here stood, before the Revolution, the shop of the celebrated Mlle. Bertin, Marie-Antoinette's milliner. She had made for Her Majesty a hat à la "Paul Jones," for feminine fashions, like minds from 1776 to 1783 especially were subject to the influence of the United States. Then were seen coats "à l'Insurgente," and "Lightning-conductor" dresses, in honour of Franklin, with a little steel point and two wires trailing to the ground. But it was especially in the creation of coiffures that the imagination of milliners had scope. They made coiffures "à la Boston," "à la Grenade," "à> la Philadelphia" "au glorieux d'Estaing"; that "à la Belle Poule" with a frigate loaded with masts with rigging and with batteries was certainly the most complicated. It was invented on the occasion of a fight in which took part the frigate of that name, on 17th June 1778. All articles of fashion and those especially made in Paris were à l'Amérique." The name of Franklin was also given to hats, gloves, snuff-boxes, and even to dishes. These manifestations of sympathy for America before the official alliance between the two countries awoke even beneath that form the fears of the police who, in December 1777, forbade, not the wearing of the new coiffure "Aux Insurgents," but its name. This interdiction naturally only increased the rage for it.
No. 50. ---Hôtel built in 1738, in which, doubtless, the Marquise de Pompadour was brought up, and which bears since 1792, as a furnished hôtel, the name of Hôtel de Strasbourg. The American writer and historian, Moncure D. Conway, lived there, and it was there that he wrote his "Life of Thomas Paine."
No. 65. ---It was in this building, which dates from the XVIIth Century and which was, a century later, the furnished Hôtel Richelieu, afterwards called "de Louis XVI," that Gouveneur Morris stopped, the 3d of February 1789, on his arrival in Paris, where he had come to superintend the execution of certain bargains made by him with the fermiers-généraux. The letters of recommendation which Washington had given him opened to him all the doors, and his manners and his wit caused him to be received in the best society. He was interested in all contemporary events in which he foresaw the approaching Revolution. Some days after the taking of the Bastille, he dined with La Fayette, now become King of Paris as Commandant of the National Guard, and visited with him, on the 16th July, the old fortress, which they had begun to pull down. Morris made several voyages to England and to Holland for the purpose of negotiating a loan destined for the repayment of the American debt to France.
In November 1790, on his return from Holland, he was still living in the Rue de Richelieu at the Hôtel du Roi, and he was still living there in May 1792 when Washington named him United States Minister to Paris, although his opposition to the French Revolution was known; besides, in the American Senate his nomination raised a somewhat lively opposition, and was only ratified with a feeble majority. After the events of the 10th August 1792, Morris did not follow the example of other foreign ministers who left Paris ; he remained there in spite of the pressing advice of his family and of Talleyrand. He saw perish in the massacres of September such friends as M. de Montmorin, the Princesse de Lamballe, the Duc de La Rochefoucauld.
After the execution of Louis XVI Morris wrote: "Life in Paris . . . has, as a matter of fact, become torture." In England there being a rumour that he had been guillotined, Morris replied to his brother that this news was untrue "at the moment of its publication." Fortunately he was a man of unlimited resource. Later on he loved to relate how, one day that he was driving in Paris in a very fine coach, the crowd came about him crying: "Aristocrat!" Morris showed his wooden leg at the door, declaring in excellent French that he had lost his leg in the service of American liberty, the truth being that he had never taken part in any fight, and that his amputation was simply the result of a vulgar carriage accident which had happened in 1780 in Philadelphia. On the 28th May 1793, Morris was arrested in the street and taken to the revolutionary section of the Butte des Moulins (quarter of the Avenue de l'Opéra), because he was without a civic card. Set free at once, he had nevertheless to submit to a domiciliary visit. That very day he made a complaint, and obtained a passport for the interior of France. He went to live in the country near Paris, at Seine-Port, where, some miles away from the Terror of Paris, he could see processions being formed to obtain rain from "le bon Dieu."
The recall of Morris had been asked for by the French Government directly after Washington had demanded that of the French Minister Genet. Morris returned for some time to Paris, from whence he again went back to his little retreat of Seine-Port in the Spring of 1794. At his pressing demand he was at length replaced by Monroe. He interceded about that time in favour of Mme. de La Fayette, not as a Minister, but as an American citizen. He left Paris on the 14th of October 1794, sending to the United States all his possessions in France: books, wine, furniture, silver, carriages. He had, especially, in his cellar some Imperial Tokay, sealed with the double Austrian eagle, a present from the Empress Marie-Thérèse to Marie-Antoinette, which he had bought at a grocer's during the Terror, for 25 sous a bottle. The last of it was drunk only in 1848 at New York, at a wedding. Morris returned through Germany, where he again saw, at Hamburg, in 1797, La Fayette who had been set free from Olmütz at the instance of the American Government, and he entreated him to go to America. Having left Altona the 7th October 1798, he arrived only on the 5th January 1799 at his house in Morrisania, where he saw rather frequently, in 1807, General Moreau, who, exiled from France in 1804 for having taken part in the plot of Cadoudal and Pichegru, lived in the United States till 1813.
No. 79. ---Was occupied by the United States Consulate from 1873 to 1886.
No. 89.---It was here that dwelt, during his stay in Paris, John Howard Payne, actor, author, poet, theatrical manager, who spent twenty years of his life between London and Paris. He had many dwellings, at the Rue du Colombier (now Rue Jacob), in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, and at the Palais-Royal, where he wrote "Home, Sweet Home." He had also bought a villa at Versailles. It was Payne who presented his fellow-countryman Irving to Talma in 1821. He fell in love with Shelley's widow whom he met in 1823 at l'Hôtel Nelson, in Paris. He returned to America in 1835.
No. 95. ---James Monroe came to Paris for the first time in 1794 as Minister Plenipotentiary, in succession to Gouveneur Morris ; appointed the 28th of May, he arrived there at the end of July, after the fall of Robespierre. Contrary to his predecessor he sympathised with the Revolutionary ideas but, in the absence of all the other Ambassadors who had left Paris, he had a difficult task, and the Comité de Salut Public were some time before receiving him. Monroe obtained the release of Thomas Paine, imprisoned in the Luxembourg under the pretext of having conspired in favour of Louis XVI to bring him back to power. It was at No. 101 (the present No. 95), of the Rue de Richelieu, in a furnished hôtel, then known at the Hôtel des Patriotes Etrangers, and which has since been pulled down, that Morris sheltered and nursed Paine, who was ill, in 1795. Paine there wrote the second part of "The Age of Reason."
Recalled the 22d of August 1796 from his first mission in France, Monroe left the French Government the following December. He was replaced by C. C. Pinckney. In 1803 Jefferson sent him to France with Livingston to treat with Napoléon I about the transfer of Louisiana to the United States. During the month which followed his arrival this sale was concluded and ratified by Napoléon for 3,200,000 francs, 3rd May 1803. Monroe took leave of the Emperor the 24th of June following.
The Bibliothèque Nationale stands on the site of several hôtels, especially the Hôtel Tubœuf , bought by Louis XV in 1719 to make of it the seat of the Compagnie des Indes, and of the Hôtel de Nevers, part of the old Palais Mazarin, in which Law and his royal Bank were installed after 1719.
Law had obtained in August 1717 the exploitation of Louisiana, conceded first in favour of the financier Crozat who gave up his privilege; he also obtained the trade in beaver skins of Canada, and was thus able to exploit nearly the whole of the northern part of America with a privilege lasting 25 years, granted by letters patent the 6th of September 1717. The Compagnie d'Occident, which the public called the Mississippi Company, had a capital of one hundred millions, divided into 200,000 shares of five hundred francs payable to bearer, which soon became the object of violent speculation, to the benefit of Law's Bank. In May 1719 Law had transferred to him commercial privileges of the Compagnies des Indes Orientals, de Chine, d'Afrique, de Guinée, de Saint Dominique, and made his company the Compagnie des Indes. It was then that he established it in the Hôtel de Nevers.
Law undertook to forcibly colonise Louisiana. The Compagnie des Indes spread, far and wide, advertisements, in which were described mountains full of precious metals, rocks of emerald in Arkansas, and of fabulous operations of barter with the Natchez. Some volunteers offered to go there, but they proceeded especially by the enrolment of vagabonds picked up in the streets, and of criminals taken from the prisons. The hospitals furnished stray children of both sexes, and the company was even accused of having children kidnapped in the streets. In 1720 they made two special companies of recruiters for colonisation, called by the public the Bandoliers du Mississippi, because of the shoulder straps to which they suspended their rifles. It was said that, for a sum of money, it was possible to make use of them to have one's personal enemies arrested and sent far away. Abbé Prevost has alluded to these abductions, and has placed among this scenery of the Compagnie du Mississippi his celebrated novel of Manon Lescaut and the Chevalier Desgrieux.
When Law's shares went down, the bearers of notes crowded to the doors of the Bank, in the Rue Vivienne. On July 17th, 1720, it was reckoned that there were more than 15,000 people there and of these fifteen were crushed before five o'clock. Law, attacked by the crowd in his coach, was saved only by the swiftness of his horses. He was declared bankrupt, and crossed the frontier in December 1720.
The Bibliothèque Royale was established there in 1721 and rapidly developed considerably. It has been regularly open to the public since 1692 and many Americans have come there to work, from Franklin down to Moncure D. Conway, who lived and died beside it.
1. Département des Imprimés. ---This department reckons about 40,000 volumes consecrated to the History of America, of which an important part bears on the History of the United States. A series of special catalogues is consecrated to this subject.
A collection of books, manuscript documents, and prints relative to America was bequeathed in 1886 to the Library by M. Augrand, with a sum of 60,000 francs, the interest on which partly serves to endow with a quinquennial prize of 5,000 francs the best work which has appeared on the American languages, history and antiquities of times anterior to the discovery of Christopher Columbus. This collection, which bears the name of its donor, contains about 1,500 numbers.
2. Département des Manuscrits. ---The number of manuscripts of American origin preserved in this department is of small importance. An atlas of marine maps and of outlines of the Coast of America taken at sea, executed on board the "Defiance," the ship of Francis Drake during his expedition of 1596-1598 (English Manuscript No. 51).
3. Cabinet des Médailles. ---This Cabinet possesses, in the series "Médailles d'Etats," 184 medals recalling the events of the History of the United States ; in the Series "Grands Hommes," 40 medals of American citizens ; for instance, two large medallions, one of Franklin and the other of Elisha Kent Kane, and a medal of Jeanne d'Arc brought by Captain Alcock on his aeroplane in the crossing of the Atlantic, in June 1919 ; in the Series "Monnaies," about 294 pieces of the United States.
4. Département des Estampes. ---Besides several series of prints this department contains important collections of engravings relating to the United States, as well as many isolated items. Series of "Recueil de Costumes de l'Amérique"; costumes militaires des Etats-Unis, par Arthur L. Bresler (1891) ; costumes de l'Amérique du Nord.
Series H. C American Cities and Ruins, by Charnay.
Series Nd. Portraits of Celebrated Americans (1834- 1839).
Series U. Scenes and Views of America by Willis and Bartlett (1840) ; North America, by G. Catlin; Voyage on the River Hudson, by Milbert (1828).
Series Vd. Topography of Northern America (United States).
Series Vh. Views of North America, by Bartlett and Payne; Old New York, by Greatorex; The Falls of Niagara, by Blouet (1838) ; Scenographia Americana (1768).
5. Section de Géographie. ---This department preserves a document which is the most ancient souvenir of America, not only in Paris, but in Europe.
A map of America on a large scale, made in 1584 by Jacques de Vaulx, pilot in the King's Navy at Havre (mm. 580 x mm. 810), on parchment. This map offers the particularity of representing, from a political point of view, the American continent such as Queen Catherine de Médicis then imagined it to be ; shared between two vice-royalties : one of Newfoundland and of North America, granted to her equerry Troilus du Mesgouez, who bore that title since 1578; and the other of Brazil, in favour of Philippe Strozzi, her cousin, who was to gain the Azores, then Brazil, but Strozzi was killed at the Azores, and this map has helped to reveal what was then "the Queen's secret."
In 1892 the Section de Géographie organised, on the occasion of the 4th Centenary of the discovery of America, an important exhibition of manuscripts and of old maps relating to America. The catalogue comprised 289 items.
Rivoli (Rue de) --- (I).
The poet N. P. Willis lived in the Rue de Rivoli for six months in 1831 ; there he met Fenimore Cooper and Samuel F. B. Morse, and was, like them, presented to Louis Philippe. He visited Paris again on his wedding trip.
Samuel Finley Breese Morse also lived in the Rue de Rivoli in 1838, near the Place des Pyramides ; he relates in his Journal that from his balcony he dominated the Jardin des Tuileries and could see the room occupied in the Palais des Tuileries by the Duc d'Orléans; he saw, the day following his birth, the son of the latter, the future Comte de Paris, who was to serve in 1861 in the Federal troops of the United States.
No. 230. ---Opposite No. 230 of the Rue de Rivoli, an inscription relates that there, in the street itself, was situated the hall of the Manège, belonging to the Palais des Tuileries, where were held the divers Revolutionary Assemblies : the Constituent Assembly from 7th November 1789 to 30th September 1791 ; the Legislative Assembly from 1st October 1791 till 21st September 1792, and the National Convention from 21st September 1792 to 9th May 1793, before it established itself in the Salle des Machines at the Tuileries. The President's tribune was where the plaque now is ; the bar and the orators' tribune was placed at the present pillar marked No. 230.
It was in the Salle du Manège that, 11th June 1790, Mirabeau went into the tribune and announced to the National Assembly the death of Franklin, who had forrnerly patronised him when he was only an unknown pamphleteer, and had encouraged him to write against Heredity of the Cincinnati Society his "Considérations sur l'Ordre de Cincinnatus en imitation d'un pamphlet Anglo-Américain," to wit, that of Judge Ædanus Burke. Mirabeau, whom Franklin had recommended in 1784 to Benjamin Vaughan, proposed to the National Assembly to decree that during three days it should wear mourning for the illustrious American ; the motion was voted unanimously. The Assembly voted besides the prititing of Mirabeau's speech, and ordered that President Siéyès should communicate to the United States Congress the decision taken by the Assembly. The 20th of June following Siéyès wrote to the President of the United States a letter in which he said: "We hope that the citizens of the United States will notice with interest the funeral homage that we have rendered to the Nestor of America."
The 10th of July of the same year, 1790, Paul Jones accompanied to the Salle du Manège, before the National Assembly, a delegation of citizens of America living in Paris, whose President, William Henry Vernon, pronounced a sympathetic speech: the Assembly decreed the printing of it. This was the last act of the public life of Paul Jones.
In its meeting of the 26th of April 1792, the National Assembly, taking into consideration a project of law proposed by the deputy, Guadet, voted the granting of the title State of Georgia the 22d "February 1785. The Museum of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, preserves a bust of Necker, in Sèvres china, which d'Estaing sent to Washington, and which the latter placed in his library. In spite of the protection which Gouveneur Morris extended to him during the Revolutionary period, as well as to other officers who had taken part in the American War, he was arrested as noble and rich, and guillotined the 28th April 1794.
From 1774 to 1783 d'Estaing lived during his short stays in Paris at the angle of the Rue St-Honoré and the Rue Saint-Florentin.
Saint-Denis (Rue) --- (I).
No. 20. ---At the end of 1796 an association of Theoanthrophiles was founded at the Hôpital Sainte Catherine, 34 Rue Saint-Denis, at the southeast corner of the Rue des Lombards: the site is now occupied by the Magasins de Pygmalion. The 16th of January 1797, Thomas Paine there made a speech of inauguration on the Existence of God.
Saint-Denis (Rue du Faubourg) --- (X).
No. 144. ---Towards the beginning of 1793 Thomas Paine, beset by visitors, by the curious and even by spies who unceasingly disturbed him, gave up living at the Hôtel de Philadelphie,Rue des Petits Pères, of which he kept only the address for the public; but, so as to be at peace, he rented, at the end of March, a house standing out of the way at No. 63 that was, of the Faubourg Saint-Denis. This house was said to have been inhabited formerly by Mme. de Pompadour, the celebrated favourite of Louis XV. He has himself described the old yard full of poultry and the garden full of fruit where apricots and green gages, the best he had ever eaten, grew. There he had rented a little apartment of three rooms in which he remained six or seven weeks; friends came to keep him company, among whom was an American, Mr. Shapworth.
After the arrest of Paine, in December 1793, this house becafne a school directed by a former priest, Joseph Honoré Valant, who soon followed Paine to prison. In 1806 when the numbers were altered, 63 became 142. The site of the house is now occupied by the offices of the Compagnie des Chemins de Fer de l'Est; according to a legend the little garden which now exists there is all that is left of the one in which Paine walked.
Saint-Dominique (Rue) --- (VII).
During one of his visits to Paris Fenimore Cooper lived in the Rue Saint-Dominique.
His first stay in or near Paris lasted from July 1826 to February 1828. It was at this time that he made the acquaintance of Walter Scott at the house of the Princesse Galitzine. He returned to Paris in August 1830, shortly after the Revolution of July, and stayed there until the time of his return to America in 1833, He was there during the epidemic of cholera of 1832. During his last stay he assisted at a banquet given by the Ambassador of the United States in honour of Canning, who was visiting Paris.
No. 4. ---Site of the former Hôtel de Broglie. Claude Victor, Prince de Broglie (1757-1794), second in command of the Regiment of Saintonge, took part in the American Campaign. He has left a "Journal" of his voyage. Taken before the Revolutionary Tribunal, he was guillotined in 1794.
No. 28. ---Formerly Hôtel de Caraman, now Hôtel de La Rochefoucauld d'Estissac. Was inhabited in 1800 by William Vans Murray, charged with a mission to the French Government with Oliver Ellsworth and William R. Davey, who lodged in the Rue Batelière.
No. 100. ---W. R, King, United States Minister Plenipotentiary, lived here in 1846.
Saint-Florentin (Rue) --- (I).
No. 2. ---A fine hôtel built in 1767 by the architect Chalgrin for Phelippeaux de la Vrillère, Comte de Saint Florentin. After the Revolution it was bought by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Périgord, who had taken refuge in America in 1794, and there re-made his fortune in business. The oath of fidelity to the Government of Pennsylvania and of the United States, which Talleyrand made the 19th May 1794 before the Mayor of Philadelphia, has been preserved.
No. 7. ---Ferdinand de Lesseps, the promoter of the piercing of the Isthmus of Panama, lived here.
No. 9. ---Louis-Philippe, Comte de Ségur (1753-1830), who went through the American War with La Fayette, lived in his youth, about the middle of the street, in the hôtel of his father, Philippe Henri, Marquis de Ségur, Maréchal de France, and Minister of War in 1780.
Saint-Georges (Rue) --- (IX).
No. 8. ---Franklin's grandson, William Temple Franklin, lived here while staying in Paris.
Saint-Germain (Boulevard) --- (VI and VII).
No. 184. ---Société de Geographie. The celebrated explorer, H. M. Stanley, was solemnly received here by the Société de Geographie in 1878 on his return from his expedition of 1875-1877 in Equatorial Africa. He had been Paris correspondent of the New York Herald after the War of Secession. He later stayed there several times.
Saint-Gilles (Rue) --- (III).
François-Claude-Amour, Marquis de Bouille (1739- 1800), lived in this street about 1773; he had made himself famous during the War of American Independence by the conquest of Dominique, Tabago, Saint Eustache, and Saint Christophe.
Saint-Honoré (Rue) --- (I).
No. 161. ---Café de la Régence. The old cafe of the same name which was founded in 1681 was situated at the wastern angle of the Place du Palais-Royal and of the Rue Saint-Honoré ; Franklin frequented it, as well as Diderot, Voltaire, etc.
No. 211. ---This block comprises a great part of the buildings of the Hôtel de Noailles, a magnificent residence built in 1711, the gardens of which were looked upon as one of the curiosities of Paris, and which extended as far as the present No. 223. It was in the Chapel of the Hôtel de Noailles now extinct, that on Monday the 11th of April 1774, Marie-Adrienne-Françoise de Noailles, daughter of Jean-Paul-François de Noailles, Duc d'Ayen, General of Brigades and Armies of the King, and of Henriette-Anne-Louise d'Aguesseau de Fresne, Duchesse d'Ayen, was married to Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Mottier de La Fayette, son of Michel-Louis-Christopher-Roch-Gilbert du Mottier, Marquis de La Fayette, Baron de Vissac, Lord of Saint-Romain, and of Marie-Louise-Julie de la Rivière. The bridegroom was sixteen years old, and the bride fifteen. The nuptial benediction was given them by Abbé de Musat, cousin of the bridegroom. The future Marquise de La Fayette was born in the Hôtel de Noailles in 1759.
Her brother, Louis-Marie, Vicomte de Noailles (1756-1804), was also born there; he made the campaign of the Antilles with d'Estaing, returned to America with Rochambeau as second-in-command of the regiment of Soissonais, and drew up the terms of the capitulation of Yorktown. He took refuge in America during the Revolution.
No. 263. ---Chapel of the former Convent of the Dames de l'Assomption (1670).
It was here that the obsequies of La Fayette took place 22nd May 1834. At the end of the religious service a delegation of the Polish refugees in Paris bore to the funeral coach the coffin of the "Veteran of Liberty." The funeral procession went from there to the Cemetery of Picpus via the Place Vendôme, the Rue de la Paix, the Boulevards as far as the Place de la Bastille, and the Faubourg Saint-Antoine as far as the Rue de Picpus. Mr. Baston, for the United States, held one of the cords of the pall.
The Americans of Passy met, on the occasion of the death of La Fayette, on the 21st May at 12 o'clock, at the United States Legation, 24 Rue Chantereine, now Rue de la Victoire.
No. 420. ---Office of the Chicago Tribune, a Paris edition of which has appeared since the 4th July 1917.
Saint-Honoré (Rue du Faubourg) --- (VIII).
No. 33. ---During the War the Cercle Interallié, frequented by numerous American personalities, was established, from 1918 to 1919, in this hôtel, lent by Doctor H. de Rothschild.
General Lewis Cass, United States Minister Plenipotentiary, lived, in 1838, at (former) No. 45.
No. 57. ---Palais de 1'Elysée (built in 1718 by Mollet for the Comte d'Evreux, and later inhabited by the Marquise de Pompadour). It is in this, the residence of the President of the Republic, that all Americans of note staying for a time in Paris, and a large part of the American colony have been received at official receptions, first from December 1849 to December 1851, during the Second Republic, and since 1871 ; it is here that the United States Ambassadors present their letters of credit to the President of the Republic.
Presidents Roosevelt and Wilson were received here, the latter with the honours due to heads of States when visiting officially at Paris.
No. 112. ---Hôtel of the Duc de Noailles, which was afterwards inhabited by Duc Charles de Damas (1758-1829), aide-de-camp of Rochambeau, during the American campaign.
No. 186. ---Formerly Hôtel de Nogent at the end of the 18th Century. Transformed into a hospital during the War, this building and its garden have been made, since the Armistice, into a home for American Soldiers, who called it "The Garden."
No. 193. ---The celebrated sculptor Houdon worked for a long time in the Faubourg Saint-Honoré ; he had a studio there first after 1772, near the gate of the Roule, in a place belonging to the foundry of the Roule, which was part of the City of Paris and which was taken from him in 1787. He then bought a house situated opposite the Chapel of Saint-Nicolas, almost at the present Rue de Balzac. He lived there till 1813.
It was in these studios that the famous sculptor executed the busts of Franklin, Jefferson, Fulton, and Barlow. In 1785 he embarked with Franklin for the United States to execute the statue of Washington, now at Richmond, the project of which had been voted by the State of Virginia; he arrived at Mount Vernon October 2d, and there passed fifteen days. A replica in bronze of this statue was since offered to France by the State of Virginia, and inaugurated at Versailles in 1910. One may read in the Journal of Gouveneur Morris this little-known detail, that in 1789 he used to go to Houdon's house to pose for the silhouette of General Washington whose statue the great sculptor was then finishing.
Saint-Jacques (Rue) --- (V).
No. 123. ---Lycée Louis-le-Grand. The north part of the Lycée occupies the site of the old College du Plessis, founded in 1316, which was of great importance because of its extent. It was at this college that La Fayette was placed at eleven years of age, directly his mother brought him from Chavaniac to Paris. It is said that he made fairly good Latin studies there. The college was turned into a jail during the Revolution, and by a curious chance, Mme. de La Fayette was shut up there for some time during the winter of 1794-1795.
Nicollet, former professor at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, made, at his own expense, in 1831, the exploration of the Mississippi, going from its mouth to its source, of which he was the first to give a detailed description. He spent five years in these regions, established himself as professor in a little Catholic college in Baltimore, then was charged by the American Government with a new mission with a view to settling the map of the "River Colbert," which Marquette and Joliet had seen for the first time in June 1673, and which La Salle had succeeded, nine years later, in descending as far as the Gulf of Mexico.
Saint-Lazare (Gare) --- (VIII).
It was here that Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791-1872) made in Paris his first experiments of telegraphy, on the line of Saint-Germain en Laye.
A painter during the first half of his life and an inventor during the other, Morse came for the first time to Paris in 1829. There he worked at the Louvre of which he painted one of the galleries representing in miniature a certain number of the paintings ; he made the acquaintance of Benjamin Constant and of Horace Vernet, as also of Louis Daguerre, who initiated him into photography. He also met during this stay La Fayette, whose portrait he painted; he was received by the Royal Academy of Painting.
It was during his return voyage to the United States in 1832 that he conceived the first idea of his telegraphic apparatus, on the "Sully," on board which ship he met Jackson returning from studying in Paris the questions of magnetism and electricity. He returned in 1838 to Paris, where he presented, 29th September, his system of telegraphy before the Academy of Sciences.
Morse made a last voyage to Europe in 1868.
The first experiments with the telephone made in France with the Graham-Bell apparatus took place in 1878 at the Gare Saint-Lazare.
Saint-Lazare (Rue) --- (IX).
William H. Crawford, United States Minister Plenipotentiary, lived in this street in 1814 and 1815.
Saint-Martin (Rue) --- (III).
No. 292. ---Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers.
The Musée des Arts et Métiers contains some souvenirs capable of interesting American tourists.
(1) Old Church of St. Martin des Champs (ground floor). First model of the Statue of Liberty illuminating the World, by A. Bartholdi, inaugurated at New York, October 28th, 1886. Two small models, and the head of the statue in course of making.
(2) Salle 11 (first floor). Models of agricultural machines, American, in the central glass cases.
(3) Salle 53 (second floor). The portfolio No. 450 (ask it of the guardian) contains some valuable documents relating to Robert Fulton. Two drawings of his proposed steamboat, and two autograph letters relating to his invention, addressed by him in 1798 and in 1803 to the President of the Commission of the Conservatoire of Arts and Métiers.
Saint-Michel (Boulevard) --- (V).
No. 93. ---Foyer International des Etudiants (Student's Hostel). This hôtel, more especially reserved before the war to American students, is now intended as a dwelling place, at a moderate charge, for students of all nationalities ; a students' club will be organised here. This hostel is placed under the auspices of the Y. W. C. A., of the Y. M. C. A. of London, and of the Christian Association of Students in Paris.
Saints-Pères (Rue des) --- (VII).
The Vicomte de Mirabeau, brother of the orator, was born, it is said, in this street in 1754. He served in the American War; he was already known there under the name of Mirabeau-Tonneau which he had gained on account of his great girth and of his love for wine.
No. 64. ---Furnished hôtel of Bon La Fontaine, in which Whistler went first to lodge when he came back to live in Paris in the Autumn of 1892. It was here that he made the portrait of Stephane Mallarmé.
Saint-Severin (Rue) --- (V).
Abbé Prevost of Exilles (1697-1763), the celebrated author of Manon Lescaut, lived in this street. The second part of this famous novel, dedicated to the moral reform of Manon Lescaut, is laid in New Orleans. Of all the descriptions of New Orleans which have been written far from the Mississippi, the most exact seems still to be that of Abbé Prevost. The story of Manon Lescaut will besides remain not only as a literary masterpiece, but also as a very correct picture of female deportation from Paris to Louisiana during the time of Law and of the Mississippi Company.
Saxe (Avenue de) --- (XV).
No. 52. ---Marshal Foch lives here.
Scribe (Rue) --- (IX).
No. 5. ---The headquarters of the United States Consulate General was installed here from about 1880 till 1884.
No. 11 bis. ---Headquarters of the Union des Colonies étrangères en France en faveur des victimes de la guerre; this association, in which the American colony had a considerable part, has established and maintained since the war five schools for the professional re-education of the mutilated, among others those of the Grand Palais and of Neuilly sur Marne; it has gathered together, till the end of 1919, in gifts and in subscriptions, nearly 5 million francs, and has re-educated more than 7,000 mutilated men; the contributions from the American Committee of New York reached, at the same date, 2 million francs.
No. 15. ---Office of the Paris American, a periodical dedicated especially to Franco-American relations.
Sentier (Rue du) --- (II).
Jean-François, Marquis de Chastellux (1734-1788), lived in the Rue du Sentier from 1776 to 1784. He served under the orders of Rochambeau, as Major General in the American War, and there became intimate with Washington. He was a member of the Académie Française, and he wrote in particular "Discours sur les Avantages de la découverte de l'Amérique," and "Des Voyages dans l'Amérique Septentrionale."
Sevigné (Rue de) --- (III).
No. 23. ---Musée Carnavalet. This Museum, especially dedicated to all that concerns the history of Paris, contains some documents interesting for the United States.
First. ---Salle N. (Salle Louis XVI).
Glass case on right on entering: Various portraits of La Fayette. Glass case in centre : objects bequeathed by Pierpont Morgan (fan used by Marie Antoinette, ring and miniature containing her portrait, group in biscuit de Sèvres of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette). At the bottom, on left: Portrait of La Fayette, young, by Danloux.
Second. ---Salle VII. (Salle de l'Empire).
In the centre glass case: objects bequeathed by Pierpont Morgan; crystal glass having belonged to the Mother of Napoléon I, and clasp found at Pompeii, having belonged to Caroline, Queen of Naples.
Third. ---Salle XVI.
Between the two windows : small bronze bust of Franklin. To the right: portrait of Franklin by Duplessis.
Finally the Museum is the depositary of American flag given by the city of Philadelphia to the city of Paris, in 1917; this flag is a duplicate of the one which floats above Independence Hall, for the birthday of La Fayette, and has been already many times flown over the Hôtel de Ville of Paris, where, the day following the taking of the Bastille, La Fayette was proclaimed Commander-in-Chief of the National Guard.
During the war Mr. Otis A. Mygatt gave to the Museum some material for hangings composed of the Franco-American colours.
Sèvres (Rue de) --- (VII)
No. 84. ---Site of the hôtel of the Duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt (1747-1827), who dwelt there from 1768 to 1793, before emigrating, first to England, then to the United States, from whence he returned to France in November 1799, after the coup d'état of 18th Brumaire.
Spontini (Rue) --- (XVI).
No. 2. ---Two United States Ministers Plenipotentiary have lived hereabout : E. B. Washburne in 1875, 1876, and General Edward F. Noyes in 1877.
Strasbourg (Boulevard de) --- (X).
Gare du Chemin de fer de l'Est.
The line of the Chemin de fer de l'Est leads to the principal sectors and battlefields of the American troops during the war; Alsace, the Vosges, Lorraine, Woevre, Argonne, Champagne, and the Marne. It is also by this Eastern Railway that the great American cemeteries of the front can be visited: Fismes, to the S. E. of Soissons; Belleau, to the N. of Château-Thierry; Seringe and Nesles, to the E. of Château-Thierry; Beaumont, to the S. E. of Sedan; Romagne-sous-Montfaucon, to the N. of Montfaucon, and Thiaucourt, to the N. of Toul (see Suresnes).
Taitbout (Rue) --- (IX).
Towards the end of his stay in Paris Thomas Jefferson occupied an apartment in what was called the "Têtebout" blind-alley, now that part of the Rue Taitbout comprised between the Boulevard des Italiens and the Boulevard Haussmann.
His house became the centre for meetings of French officers having fought in the American Army; La Fayette came there often, and even invited there one evening at the end of 1789 some of his friends to discuss whether the right of veto should be granted to or taken away from the King. Jefferson reproached him with it, not wishing to seem to work for the overthrow of the regime to which he was accredited.
No. 32. ---The American Chamber of Commerce in France has fixed its quarters here since 1918; it was formerly at 3 Rue Scribe.
It was founded in the month of June 1894 by Dr. Stephen Higginson Tyng, a clergyman, of New York, who had been settled in Paris since 1881 as director of the Equitable of the United States. At the beginning it comprised 11 members and now, at the end of 1919, more than 600.
The Presidents of the American Chamber of Commerce since its foundation have been:
1894-1897: Stephen H. Tyng.
1857-1900: Henry Peartree.
1901-1902 : Francis Kimbel.
1903-1904: Henry Cachard.
1905-1906: William S. Dalliba.
1907-1909: Lawrence V. Benet.
1910-1913: B. J. Shominger.
1914--- : Alfred S. Heidelbach
1915-1916: M. P. Peixotto.
1917--- : Walter V. A. Berry.
The American Chamber of Commerce has opened on its premises, since July 1919, to French and American students, the important library which has been instituted there since the War under the impulse of its President, Mr. Walter Berry. This Library already comprises not less than 10,000 volumes, among which are particularly represented historic and economic sections.
The Library is open every day, except Saturday and Sunday, from 9 to 12 and from 2 to 6 in the afternoon.
The Chamber of Commerce may be considered as the headquarters of the American Club of Paris.
Intended to "create more binding social relations between Americans living in or staying for a short time in Paris," this club was founded in February 1904, thanks to the efforts of General Horace Porter, at that time United States Ambassador to Paris, helped by Edmund Kelly, Embassy adviser, who was its first president.
The American Club numbered at the beginning of 1919 nearly 400 members, under the presidency and honorary vice-presidency of the Ambassador and of the Consul-General, and under the effective direction of an executive committee. To become a member of it one must be an American citizen living in, or staying for a time in France ; be presented by two members and accepted either by the administrative council, with a majority of three quarters of the voters, or by the executive committee unanimously. Persons not of American nationality may become members, with the title of associated members, the numbers of these may not exceed one-tenth of the titular members.
This club, which is above all a centre of connections, and which has no headquarters properly so called, holds some of its meetings at the American Chamber of Commerce. Banquets are especially organised on the 22nd February, for the anniversary of Washington's birth, and the last Thursday of November on the occasion of Thanksgiving Day.
A certain number of clubs founded in Paris during the XlXth Century may be looked upon as the predecessors of the American Club.
The Latin Quarter Club, founded in 1873, lasted only a short time. It was replaced by the Cradle Club which gave receptions in honour of Bret Harte, Gowan, who introduced the telephone into France; Mark Twain, etc. Then came the Pen and Pencil Club, which received Oscar Wilde, Inman Barnard, Theodore Child, George Moore, among others. The Ramblers' Club grew out of it, at whose dinners assisted Richard Whitney, O'Gallagan; all Anglo-Saxons could become members of it. Then the Ramblers became The Stanley Club, so named in honour of the great explorer. The Universities Club finally succeeded the Stanley Club and lasted many years, until in 1904 when the American Club was founded.
Temple (Faubourg du) --- (XI).
No. 2. ---On this site, now occupied by the Magasins Réunis, was established, in 1877, the Myers American Circus.
Temple (Rue du) --- (IV).
Admiral L. Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1771), the celebrated navigator, who took part in the American campaign, was born in 1729 in that part of the Rue du Temple which is located between the Rues de la Verrerie and Saint-Merri, and which was then called Rue Barre-du- Bec.
Théâtre-Français (Place du) --- (I).
Since 1786, the date at which the Comédie Française established itself in the premises which it still occupies, many Americans have come here to applaud its incomparable performers.
In his Journal, Gouveneur Morris relates that he often went there to hear the actor Breville. At the opening of the XlXth Century John Howard Payne and Washington Irving there often admired the celebrated Talma, whilst Longfellow stopped especially in Paris to hear the great tragedienne Rachel, who in 1856 made a tour in America, in the course of which she obtained only a fair success, and ruined her health. Emerson also went to applaud Rachel.
Tocqueville (Rue de) --- (XVII).
Opened in 1840 under the name of the Rue d'Asnières it received its present denomination in 1877, in honour of Alexis-Charles-Henri Clerel de Tocqueville (1805-1859), political writer and Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1849; he had been charged in 1831 to go to the United States to study its penitentiary system, and he published on his return a remarkable account of his mission. He published in 1835 "Democracy in America," which gained for him election to the Académie des Sciences Morales, then to the Académie Française.
Tokio (Avenue de) --- (XVI).
Called Quai Debilly until 1918.
The recollection of the experiments in steam navigation of Robert Fulton remains attached to all these banks of the Seine, from the Pont de 1'Alma to the Pont du Trocadéro.
Fulton (1765-1815) arrived in Paris early in July 1797; during the seven years that he spent in Paris he lived at 50 Rue de Vaugirard at the house of his friend, Joel Barlow, with whom he was very intimate. He was then an artist and his best picture is the portrait of Barlow which he made in Paris, likewise that of Ruth Barlow. He is also the author of a painting representing Louis XVI bidding farewell to his family in the Temple. He superintended for Barlow the printing of the plates for his poem "Columbiad." Finally as painter he executed the first panorama known in Paris, which is recalled by the Passage des Panoramas.
The second part of Fulton's life which has made his reputation (that of inventor) began in Paris; it was here that, from the month of December 1797 he addressed to the Government of the Directoire propositions concerning his inventions of torpedo and of submarine navigation and his boat the "Nautilus." The archives of the Ministère de la Marine contain numerous letters from him on this subject. The profits which he was able to realise from his panorama were employed by him in the pursuit of experiments, the length of which caused him to be somewhat forgotten. Fulton then clung to his former project of applying steam to navigation; the Marquis Claude de Jouffroy d'Abbans had also attempted it in 1776 on the Doubs, then on the Saône at Lyons.
In 1803 Fulton had a steamboat with wheels made on plans which are still preserved at the Musée des Arts et Métiers. It is related that the frame, being top weak, gave way the first time, and that, the machine having remained intact, he repaired his boat in 24 hours with his own hands, without returning home. The boat was finished in July, and on the 9th August Fulton successfully made a public demonstration; the newspapers of the time relate that he was helped by three people, and describe in detail his boat which towed two other boats. The numerous spectators who crowded along the banks of the Seine compared the speed of the boat against the current to that of a foot-passenger in a hurry; descending, it naturally seemed to them to go much faster. Fulton went up and down the Seine four times, from the Convent of the Bonshommes, whose site is now occupied by the Trocadéro Gardens, to about as far as the pump of Chaillot, the site of which is now taken by No. 2 of the Quai ; he manœuvred to right and to left with ease, and one, of the boats in tow picked up at the Quai several members of the Institut, among them Carnot, Volney, Prony, etc.
It is known that Fulton offered his invention to Napoléon to invade England, but also that it did not seem capable of serving practical purposes. Discouraged, and treated as a visionary, Fulton left Paris for England the 29th of April 1804. The same year the sculptor Houdon exhibited at the Salon his bust, now kept in the Louvre, in the Musée de la Marine. During his stay in Paris Fulton published his "Traité des améliorations de la navigation sur les canaux," in 1779. It is to be regretted that at that time they did not follow up his experiments which he took up again in the United States with entire success.
No. 12. ---Was inhabited, from 1905 till 1907, by the United States Ambassador at Paris, Robert S. MacCormick.
Tournon (Rue de) --- (VI).
No. 19. ---Formerly No. 40. It was in this house on the third floor that Paul Jones lived from December 1789, the date of his return from Russia; it was here that, on the 18th of July 1792, aged 45, he died of a long illness, and in a state bordering on poverty; the two windows to the right are those of the room in which he died. All the gazettes of Paris noticed his death, and devoted some lines of praise to the great sailor who had lived at various intervals in Paris.
His first visit dated from 1778 and was short. He had come to confer with the American Commissioners on the arming of a frigate being built in Holland for Congress. During the same year he made a short appearance at Versailles concerning the equipment of a light frigate, and was received by the King the 17th of December 1778.
Paul Jones made a second stay in Paris in April 1780, which lasted about three months, and was devoted to regulating the capture of the English vessels. He was then the hero of that memorable day, September 23rd, 1779, when, abandoning the "Bonhomme-Richard" riddled with bullets, he had become possessed of the English vessel, the "Serapis," by an act of great daring. He was received with flattering honours by Louis XVI, who offered him a gold sword, ornamented with a pompous dedication, and decorated him with the Cross of Mérite Militaire, and at the opera he was made the object of public ovations. Houdon made a bust of him for the Lodge of Neuf-Sœurs of which Jones became a member.
After returning to America Paul Jones came back to Paris the 6th of December 1783, after the signature of the Treaty of Versailles, to settle the difficulties which had arisen out of the regulating of the captured vessels. He was presented to Louis XVI the 20th of December following, in Paris. He left there at the end of 1784 for America, whence he passed into the service of Catherine II as Vice-Admiral of the Russian Fleet; but he had difficulties with the favourite Potemkine, and resigned his post. It was then, in December 1789, that he returned to Paris, never again to leave it ; we have seen that, on the 10th July 1790, he accompanied an American delegation to the Assemblée Constituante.
The 11th July 1792 his friends offered him, at the Café Timon, a dinner, at which assisted in particular the Duc d'Orléans, Carnot, Cambon, Vergniaud, Collot d'Herbois, Billaud-Varenne, Kersaint, Barbaroux, Louvet, Gouveneur Morris, La Fayette, Colonel Blackden. Soon after Paul Jones fell seriously ill, and his friends often found him in his little garden, where he passed, in a hammock, the best hours of his last days.
By a deliberation of the 29th July 1792 the Assembly delegated twelve of its members to represent it at the illustrious sailor's funeral. The ceremony, simple but imposing, according to contemporary testimony, took place the 20th of July at 8 o'clock in the evening; the remains of Paul Jones, enclosed in a lead coffin, were taken from the Rue de Tournon to the Cemetery for Foreign Protestants in the Rue de 1'Hôpital Saint-Louis (see Rue Grange-aux-Belles) from where they were exhumed in 1905 and taken to America. It was of him that Napoléon said, in 1805, after Trafalgar: "If he had lived France would have had an Admiral."
No. 33. ---Formerly furnished Hôtel de Tréville, now Restaurant Foyot, frequented by many Americans.
Trocadéro (Palais du) --- (XVI).
This museum, situated on the ground floor and on the first floor, contains a great number of objects relating to the different States of the two Americas.
On the first floor, to the right, in the gallery looking on to the Place du Trocadéro, are exposed objects of the Northwest Coast and of California (statuettes, pottery, steel-yards, instruments of the Stone Age) and of the United States (arms, costumes, harness, indigenous types). (See glass cases XXIX to XXXIV.)
In the second gallery, parallel to the former, plans in relief, the gifts of the Smithsonian Institute, and divers casts offered by the Duc de Loubat.
On the great staircase, antique American casts offered by the Duc de Loubat.
Tuileries (Jardin des) --- (I).
Jefferson had a particular predilection for the Tuileries. "In Paris," wrote he the 20th of March 1787, from Nîmes to the Comtesse de Tesse, "I was violently enamoured of the Hôtel de Salm, and I was in the habit of going every day to the Tuileries to look at it. The woman who hired out chairs, inattentive to my passion, was never sufficiently obliging to put a chair there for me, so that, seated on the parapet and twisting my head so as to be able to see the object of my admiration, I generally left there with a crick in my neck."
Université (Rue de l') --- (VII).
It was in this street, at the Hôtel de Hambourg, that Franklin stayed when he arrived in Paris, the 21st of December 1776. He brought with him his two grandsons, William Temple Franklin and Benjamin Franklin Bache. Silas Deane was waiting for him there ; his other assistant, Arthur Lee, who was in England, arrived next day. Franklin remained here a short time only, and accepted at Passy the hospitality offered him by M. Leray de Chaumont.
No. 11. ---Inhabited by Walter Gay, who was the pupil of Bonnat, and whose pictures : "Las Cigareras" and some Old Interiors are in the Musée du Luxembourg. Walter Gay has painted many interiors of old hôtels and of musées of Paris, where he long resided.
He also lived at 73 Rue Ampère.
No. 2. ---Now hôtel of the Duc de La Salle de Rocheinaure.
Albert Gallatin, United States Minister Plenipotentiary, lived about here from 1817 to 1821.
No. 148. ---Panthéon de la Guerre.
This panorama, the work of the painters Pierre-Carrier Belleuse and Auguste Gorguet, is made up of an immense canvas 120 metres round and 15 metres high, and on which the personages in the foreground reach a height of 1 metre 25, and which represents as a whole a panoramic view of the front from Dunkerque to Belfort. In the centre is the Temple of Glory whose immense staircase is decorated with victorious troops; in the foreground are Marshals Joffre and Foch. Around this central group may be seen groups of the Allied nations arranged about the pylons of the hemicycle, particularly the American Army and President Wilson.
No. 82. ---Formerly Hôtel de Plouville, built in 1733, which was the dwelling, from 1830 to 1833, of William C. Rives, United States Minister Plenipotentiary.
Valhubert (Place) --- (V)
Museum of Natural History.
The rich collections of the Museum preserve numerous objects coming from the United States; the souvenir of several noteworthy Americans likewise clings to it.
First. ---Galéries de Paléontologie.
Many American savants, drawn to France by the paleontological studies of Cuvier, came to work at the Museum, and at the time of the paleontological discoveries in the Rocky Mountains sent many original specimens or casts, particularly Leidy, Cope, and above all Marsh. Exchanges have taken place since that time between the paleontological section and the American universities, the American Museum of New York, the Smithsonian Institute, etc.
During these latter years Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn, president of the American Museum of New York, author of "The Men of the Old Stone Age," a work based on French discoveries, came to work here, as well as several savants serving in the American Army since the Armistice. (1918)
In the large gallery is the cast of a skeleton of a Diplodocus presented to the Museum by Andrew Carnegie and set up, in 1908, by the help of Dr. Holland, director of the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh.
Second. ---Galéries de Minéralogie et de Géologie.
Near the entrance is a collection of precious stones, some in their natural state and some cut, coming from the United States. This superb collection, formed by the well known expert American mineralogist, George F. Kunz, at the expense of Messrs. Tiffany and Company, was shown at the Pan-American Exhibition of Buffalo (1901); it was then bought by J. Pierpont Morgan and given by him to the Natural History Museum in Paris; it has been since then kept in touch with American discoveries by J. Pierpont Morgan and by his son.
In the glass cases and cupboards around the hall are many specimens of minerals from the United States.
In the centre are aerolites found in the States of Arizona and Iowa ; petrified trees from Arizona (gifts of J. Pierpont Morgan and Edward Tuck).
Third. ---The collections of botany and of zoology of the Museum also contain numerous specimens coming from the United States. Two great American naturalists have worked in the laboratories of the Museum : Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), who founded the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge (Mass.) of which he was the director; likewise his son, Alexander Agassiz (1835-- ).
The latter studied at the Paris Museum under the direction of his father and of Milne-Edwards ; he was corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of France.
Varenne (Rue de) --- (VII).
This street has been inhabited by a certain number of well known personages who have had various relations with the United States.
No. 22. ---Hôtel de Biron, built in 1775, where dwelt, from 1827 to 1829, James Brown, United States Minister Plenipotentiary.
No. 55. ---Talleyrand dwelt here when it was the Hôtel de Monaco and de Valentinois, from 1812 to 1814.
No. 72. ---Barbe-Marbois lived here in 1770-1778, when he was tutor of the Maréchal de Castries.
No. 73. ---Formerly Hôtel de Broglie, built in 1775, in which General Pershing lived for some time, on his arrival in Paris, in June 1917.
No. 77. ---Hôtel de Biron, built from 1728 to 1731 ; it was in this superb dwelling that the great sculptor Rodin had his studio, and that he worked at the bust of France which the Champlain Mission erected at Crow Point, on the bank of Lake Champlain, and at the frontier of the United States and Canada, to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the celebrated explorer
Vaugirard (Rue de)
No. 1. ---Was inhabited, from 1808 to 1810, by General John Armstrong, United States Minister Plenipotentiary.
No. 15. ---Luxembourg (Palais du).
Thomas Paine, arrested the 27th of December 1793, was incarcerated in the Luxembourg prison, where some foreigners and a certain number of nobles, among them the wife of the Maréchal de Noailles, mother of Mme. de La Fayette, were imprisoned. He was there, in particular, with some English people among whom, by a curious coincidence was General O'Hara, who at Yorktown had so severely wounded American feeling by offering to give up the sword of Cornwallis to Rochambeau instead of to Washington. When Paine became ill the two doctors accompanying O'Hara cared for him devotedly. Paine, it is said, escaped death through a mistake; they had marked with chalk the doors of those prisoners intended for execution ; his was open when they passed to mark it, and the mark, was made on the inside of the door; Paine shut it shortly after; the mark being inside was not seen, and Paine was not called among the condemned prisoners.
It is also related that, learning one day that they were going to search the prisoners so as to take away their money, Paine undid the lock of his door and there hid the money he had on him. From his cell, which was separated from the others and was situated at one of the extreme ends of the building, he kept up a constant correspondence with an unknown person in whom he afterwards recognised the wife of a friend, an English banker, Sir Robert Smyth.
Danton, imprisoned in the Luxembourg at the beginning of April 1794, there met Paine and said to him in English: "What you have done for the welfare and the liberty of your country I have in vain tried to do for mine; I have been less fortunate, but not more guilty."
The Americans of Paris interested themselves in the fate of Paine, but unsuccessfully. Gouveneur Morris, United States Minister, did not like him, and made no demand in his favour. It was Monroe who obtained his release as an American citizen.
At the time of the Directory, Barras, who had made the American campaign in the squadron of Suffren, was living as Directeur at the Luxembourg where he occupied the Gallery formerly called "de Rubens."
On Monday the 20th of January 1919, a lunch was offered by the Senate to President Wilson, in the hall called "des Conférences" deservedly famous for the richness of its decoration. This hall, in its present state, dates only from the Second Empire; it was built in 1854 to serve as the Salle du Trône. With President Wilson were invited to this lunch Messrs. Henry White, George Barnes, Herbert Hoover, Robert Lansing, General Pershing, General Bliss, Colonel House, André Tardieu, Ambassador Jusserand, etc. M. Antonin Dubost, President of the Senate, addressed a speech to President Wilson, who answered him.
Luxembourg (Musée du).
No. 19. ---The Musée du Luxembourg comprises a rather important section reserved to the American School, which is there represented by the following artists:
John W. Alexander ---The Lady in Grey
Manuel Barthold ---Two Friends.
Max Bohm ---Golden Hours.
Mrs. Romaine Brooks--- Gabrielle d'Annunzio.
Mrs. Romaine Brooks ---On the Seaside.
William Dannat ---Lady in Red.
William Dannat ---Aragonese Smugglers.
Leon Dalbot ---Moore Park.
Ben Foster ---Lulled by the Murmuring Stream.
Frederic Friescke ---Before the Looking-Glass.
Walter Gay ---Blue and White.
Walter Gay ---The Medallions.
Walter Gay ---Interior.
Walter Gay ---The Cigar-Makers at Seville.
Walter Gay ---Interior.
Henry H. Gallison ---Landscape.
Grace Gassette ---The Dining-Room.
John MacLure Hamilton ---Gladstone.
Alexander Harrison ---Arcadia.
Alexander Harrison ---Solitude.
Alexander Harrison ---Sunlight on the Sea.
Robert Henri ---The Snow.
Winslow Homer ---Summer Night.
William Horton ---Good Friday at Seville.
William Horton ---Winter evening at Pontarlier.
John Humphreys ---Johnstone Portrait of His Mother.
John Humphreys--- Johnstone Nocturnal.
Aston Knight ---Wharfe River.
Harry B. Lachman ---St. Nicolas of Chardonnet Church.
Harry B. Lachman ---Uzerches.
Walter MacEwen ---Sunday in Holland.
Gari Melchers ---Motherhood.
Gari Melchers ---The Grove.
Henry Mosler ---The Return.
Robert MacCameron ---The Slums of London.
Richard Miller ---Old Misses.
Richard Miller ---The Cup of Tea.
Richard Miller ---The Toilet.
Raymond Neilson ---The Black Hat.
Elizabeth Nourse ---The Closed Shutters.
Orville H. Peets ---Grey and Blue.
William Picknell ---Morning, Mediterranean Coast.
Edward Redfield ---Canal in Winter.
Grace Ravlin ---Arabian Women at Cemetery.
Ernest I. Rosen ---Delight.
John Sargent ---Carmencita.
John Sargent ---Mrs. Catherine Moore.
John Sargent ---M. de Fourcand.
William Sartain ---Head of an Oriental Negro.
Henry Tanner ---Lazarus' Resurrection.
Henry Tanner ---Emmaus Pilgrims.
Lionel Walden ---Cardiff's Docks.
Edwin Weeks ---Coffee-House in Persia.
Alden Weir ---Portrait of a Woman.
James McNeill Whistler ---Portrait of His Mother.
James McNeill Whistler ---The Man with the Pipe.
2. Pastels and water-colours.
Frank M. Boggs ---The Cathedral of Rheims.
Mary Cassatt ---Mother and Child.
John La Farge ---A Glass Fragment.
John La Farge---Jesus and the Samaritan Woman.
3. Sculpture.Andrew O'Connor --- Commodore John Barry.
Andrew O'Connor ---M. Tuck.
Malvina Hoffman ---Dancers.
Frederick MacMonnies ---Bacchante.
Augustus Saint Gaudens ---Amor Caritas
Augustus Saint Gaudens ---A Frame of Medals.
In October-November 1919 the Musée du Luxembourg organised an exhibition not only of the above mentioned collection belonging to it, but also of works of an important number of American artists; nearly two hundred painters and sculptors were represented there, many having studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts or having worked in Paris.
Jardins du Luxembourg.
In the Gardens has been placed a bronze group, the Dancers, the work of the American artist Malvina Hoffman, presented to France by Henry Dalton of Cleveland (Ohio).
No. 50.--- It was here that Joel Barlow lived for many years, probably from 1797 until at least 1804; Fulton stayed with him for the whole of this period. Recommended by Washington to La Fayette as a "genius of the first magnitude," and to Rochambeau as "the author of an admirable poem" (La Vision de Colomb, in which an angel announces to the navigator the future of the New World, and shows him Washington and Rochambeau). Joel Barlow arrived in Paris in 1788 as agent for the Ohio Company. In 1792, he may be seen addressing to the Convention Nationale an open letter entreating it to abolish Royal power; he himself presented to the Assembly an address from the English Republicans. The 17th of February 1793 the Convention accorded him the title of French citizen, which fact appears not to have been known in America ; he was even properly naturalised French ; it seems that he was alone in enjoying at the same time the privileges of citizenship in the two countries.
Barlow accompanied Abbé Grégoire, the celebrated Conventionalist, on a mission to Savoy. Then he settled for three years in Paris, speculating in the assignats, and attentively watching all the political movements of the time until his nomination as American Consul at Algiers and at Tripoli. He returned in 1797 to Paris, where he busied himself again in commercial speculations, and where he published in 1800 a pamphlet on the commercial system of the United States respecting England and France. Returning to America, he was made in 1811 Minister Plenipotentiary to France. In October 1812, as he was going to Napoléon I, then in Russia, he fell ill en route and died in a Polish village near Cracow.
During his stay in Paris he had his bust made by Houdon ; this marble figured in the Salon of 1804.
No. 70. ---Convent des Cannes, founded in 1610, which served as a prison during the Revolution. It was there that was imprisoned, during the Terror, General Alexandre de Beauharnais who had made the American Campaign under the orders of Rochambeau, then a successor to Custine with the Army of the Rhine. He had been accused of not having saved Mayence. With him was Josephine de Beauharnais, his wife, who took as second husband Napoléon I.
Vavin (Rue) --- (VI).
No. 40. ---Was for long inhabited by the sculptor A. Bartholdi.
Vendôme (Place) --- (I).
Nos. 3 and 5. ---Hôtel Bristol at which J. Pierpont Morgan always stayed.
No. 14. ---Morgan, Harjes and Co.
This firm has been established since 1868 in Paris, where it was first at 3 Rue Scribe under the business name of Drexel, Harjes and Co. In 1873 its offices were transferred to 31 Boulevard Haussmann, and its business name became Morgan, Harjes and Co., in 1895. Since the 31st March 1919 the bank has been settled in this splendid hôtel of the Place Vendôme, built during the early years of the XVIIIth Century by Jean Masneuf, whose name covered the association of six financiers, contractors of the Place.
No. 15.--- It was in this hôtel, now the Hôtel Ritz, that the Duc de Lauzun, who there lived in an apartment, wrote his interesting "Mémoirs," where he relates in detail his participation in the War of Independence.
No. 16. ---In this hôtel which belonged to the financier Bouret, the famous Mesmer, who made some experiments before a commission of which Franklin was one, attracted all Paris around his magic trough between 1778 and 1784; he himself lodged in the Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, at the Hôtel Bullion and 4 possessed a pied-à-terre at Vaugirard. Franklin, who believed only what he could see, saw only folly in magnetism and somnambulism, but a folly which brought much money to Mesmer and his disciples.
No. 17. ---This hôtel, the oldest in the Place, was built in 1703 by Bullet for the celebrated financier Antoine Crozat, Marquis du Châtel (1655-1738), who had obtained in 1712 the privilege of trading with Louisiana, but, seeing the small benefits obtained, renounced it in 1717; the privilege was then granted to Law.
Nos. 21-23. ---John Law of Lauriston (1671-1729), the famous financier, who had obtained the privilege of trading with Louisiana and Mississippi, and who founded the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales, lived in the hôtel numbered 21 and 23. This hôtel had been built by the architect Pierre Bullet, on ground which he had reserved for himself; it then became the property of M. de Boullongne, director of the Orders of the King and later Controller-General, who resold it to Law. The latter also acquired in 1718 the ground now occupied by the numbers 3 and 5, and in 1720, resold the unfinished hôtel to the Marquis de Coetlogon. The Place Vendôme was, at this latter date, for several months the meeting-place of stock-jobbers of Law's Bank, who had been banished from the Rue Quincampoix.
Viarmes (Rue de) --- (I).
This circular street surrounds the Bourse du Commerce which replaced in 1889 the old Halle aux Blés, built in 1768 by M. de Viarmes, Provost of Merchants.
The Hôtel de Soissons occupied formerly the site on which now stands the Bourse du Commerce. The Prince de Carignan, who was its owner in 1720, established at that date on the unoccupied ground seven or eight hundred little sheds which he let to the stock-jobbers driven by Law from the Rue Quincampoix.
It was at this place, in the old Halle aux Blés, that, on the 14th December 1783, was given a large popular ball in order to celebrate the Peace of Versailles, for which the whole of Paris was illuminated ; enormous structures with 25 porticos, measuring not less than 300 feet in circumference and 100 in height, were magnificently decorated for the occasion.
It was here also that, the 21st of July 1790, the Commune of Paris organised a public ceremony in honour of Benjamin Franklin, whose death had been announced to the National Assembly by La Fayette the 11th of June. The latter assisted at the ceremony which was the occasion of an ovation for him and in the course of which Abbé Fauchet, Member of the Assembly, pronounced the funeral eulogy of the "sage of Philadelphia" in the hall hung with black draperies and in the presence of an important assistance.
Victoire (Rue de la) --- (IX).
No. 44. ---Today a Synagogue occupies the site of a hôtel which was the seat of the United States Legation from 1834 to 1837.
Two United States Ministers Plenipotentiary have lived here: Edward Livingston, from 1834 to 1836, and General Lewis Cass in 1837.
No. 46. ---Site of the former Salle Herz where, at the end of 1865, the Brothers Davenport, celebrated mediums, born in Buffalo in the United States, made several public demonstrations.
No. 58. ---Formerly Hôtel d'Argenson, which later belonged to the Maréchal Alexandre Berthier (1753-1815), Prince de Wagram. He and his younger brother, César-Gabriel, took part in the American War. The story of their embarkation for the United States well proves the ardour of all the young officers of that time to take part in the War of Independence; Rchambeau's fleet was already off Brest when it was joined by a cutter bringing to the General the last letters of the Minister; upon this boat were the two sons of the Governor of the Hôtel de la Guerre, who begged to be taken. It was impossible, and they had to be sent back ashore; they managed, however, shortly after to join the French Army in America, from whence the future Maréchal returned with the rank of Colonel. César-Gabriel Berthier, who drew very well, furnished to the celebrated miniaturist Van Blarenberghe the typographical information necessary to the execution of two water colours made by this artist representing one, the taking by assault of the redoubts of Yorktown, the other the surrender of its garrison ; these two water-colours, intended originally for the study of Louis XVI at Versailles, are now preserved at the Château de Versailles. (Salle 138.)
Victoires (Place des) --- (II).
Nos. 2 and 4. ---Law lived for some time on the site of the Nos. 2 and 4; his offices were installed in the buildings looking on to the Place between the Rue La Feuillade and the Rue Catinat. After the closing of the Rue Quincampoix, in March 1720, the stock-jobbers met for some time at the Place des Victoires.
Vieille-du-temple (Rue) --- (IV).
No. 47. ---Hôtel called des Ambassadeurs de Hollande, hired by Beaumarchais in 1776.
Before the official Alliance between France and the United States (1778) Franklin and the other commissioners obtained non-official support from the government of Louis XVI. To relieve the French ministry (which must needs have regard for England) of the responsibility of furnishing arms and equipment to the United States, a large business firm was established in the Rue du Temple, under the name of Hortalez, Roderigue & Co., which transacted all such affairs. He whom the Baron de Goltz, Prussian Ambassador to Paris, called the "garçon-major of Franklin," A. Caron de Beaumarchais, the author of the "Barbier de Séville," and of the "Mariage de Figaro," a business man also and occasionally a financier, directed it. By means of him they advanced to the American agents first one million livres, and then another to pay for the camions, guns, munitions and equipments which the Comte de Saint-Germain, Minister of War, would only allow to go out of the arsenals when paid for. Did the court of London protest against these consignments ? The Comte de Vergennes, Minister of Foreign Affairs, replied that Silas Deane was a customer come to France on business and one whom they could not expel ; that the munitions of war sent to the Insurgents were the consignment of agents and had to do with the business of the house of Hortalez. In June 1776 Vergennes had had delivered to Beaumarchais for the United States a first sum of two millions and the arsenals placed at the disposition of the firm of Hortalez, 200 pieces of cannon, 200,000 guns and 25,000 uniforms; but, officially, on the 15th July he promised the Cabinet of St. James to remain faithful to the treaties. The assistance of Beaumarchais was at that time most efficacious, not only to Franklin and the other Commissioners, but to the entire cause of the United States to which he won over public opinion.
It is interesting to recollect, concerning the house of Hortalez, that it was on board one of their vessels, the Comte de Vergennes, that embarked for the United States, in 1777, a young officer, aged twenty-three, Lieutenant in the French Colonial troops, who was one of the first to become fired with enthusiasm for the cause of Independence, Pierre Charles L'Enfant (1754-1825), who served first as a volunteer at his own expense, was seriously wounded at Savannah, and received the rank of Major of Engineers in 1783. In the course of a journey in France he employed himself in ordering the insignia of the Cincinnati Society and of organising its French branch. He returned definitely in 1784 to the United States, and rebuilt at New York the old City Hall, in which has been preserved part of the cast-iron balustrade on which Washington must have leaned when he took the oath. His greatest achievement is having chosen the site and drawn the plan of the City of Washington, a work which was confided to him by the President, after the definitive vote of Congress, the 16th July 1790. His headstrong temper caused him to retire from this post in 1792; he then busied himself with various architectural works, and died near Washington in 1825. The United States erected, 22nd May 1911, in the Cemetery of Arlington a commemorative monument, the work of W. W. Bosworth.
Ville l'Evèque (Rue de la) --- (VIII).
In 1851-1852 the United States Minister, W. C. Rives, lived at No. 30 (formerly) ; the Legation was then at the Rue de Penthièvre.
Villejust (Rue de) --- (XVI).
No. 33. ---Was inhabited, from 1897 to 1904 by General Horace Porter, United States Ambassador to Paris.
Villiers (Avenue de) --- (XVII).
No. 45. ---Inhabited by W. T, Dannas, president of the Paris Society of American Painters. This society, founded in 1897, has for its end the organisation of exhibitions of the works of American artists in Europe, and to permit American painters to participate in all the great art exhibitions. It comprises as active members, and in unlimited numbers, American painters residing in France; as corresponding members, a certain number of American painters living out of France; as honorary members, a limited number of American painters or people of note living in France or elsewhere.
Vintimille (Rue de) --- (IX).
No. 24. ---The Place de Vintimille and the Square Berlioz occupy the site of the garden of the Pavilion built before the Revolution by the architect Carpentier, for the Farmer General de La Bouxière ; the trees of the Place are the remains of an immense park, and the grass plot of the Square is on the spot where a pond used to be.
It was in this Pavilion that James Monroe, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, lived in 1796 and in 1797. The Pavilion then had its chief entrance in the Rue de Clichy.
Vivienne (Rue) --- (II)
In 1720, on the eve of Law's bankruptcy, the shareholders of the Compagnie des Indes there crowded to the doors of the Bank.
Legend has it that, in the Rue Vivienne, near the Bibliothèque Royale, lived Aimée-Adèle de Thélisson, natural daughter of Louis XV and of Mlle. de Tiercelin, whom Paul Jones is said to have married. It is related that the marriage is supposed to have taken place at night, but no proof of it has been found; it is only certain that Jones, who often wrote to her, made her a gift of a third of his fortune and granted her an income.
Volney (Rue) --- (II).
So called in memory of the Comte de Volney (1757-1820), traveller and man of learning who made a voyage to the United States in 1795. He had already previously proposed to acclimatise American vegetables in Corsica, in a domain which he had bought and which he called his Petites-Indes. He published in 1803 a "Tableau du Climat et du Sol des Etats-Unis d'Amérique."
Voltaire (Quai) --- (VII).
The Marquis de Chastellux lived here shortly after his return from America, from 1785 to 1788, the date of his death. He here wrote his "Discours sur les avantages de la découverte de l'Amérique" and his "Voyages dans l'Amérique Septentrionale."
No. 2. ---Hôtel du Maréchal de Tesse (1775), in which Mme. de La Fayette died in 1807.
Arrested the 12th of November 1794 at the Château de Chavaniac, Mme. de La Fayette was tranferred first to Brioude, then to Paris, where she was confined in various prisons, first at the Collège du Plessis, Rue Saint-Jacques, where her husband had begun his studies, then, after the 9th Thermidor, to the Rue des Amandiers, now Rue du Chemin-Vert, and finally at Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs in the Delmas Asylum. She was at length freed in January 1795, thanks to the repeated efforts of Gouveneur Morris, who asked and obtained her release, not in the capacity of the United States Minister, but as an American citizen ; he lent her 4,000 francs when she left prison.
No. 17. ---C. Fulwar Skipwith, United States Consul to Paris, dwelt here in 1796 and 1797; it is probable that he was still living here in 1801.
No. 27. ---Hôtel de Villette, inhabited by Voltaire first in 1728, then in February 1778; he there occupied the first floor. The hôtel has been raised a floor and the interior altered. The salon to which all Paris then thronged has not been changed except for the ceiling which dates from the time of Louis Philippe.
It is there that the "old fellow," as Franklin called himself in his letters, had himself presented to Voltaire, aged 84 years, who had just returned to Paris after an exile of twenty-seven years. The American envoys asked to salute him; they found him in bed, weak, with eyes from which all life seemed to have gone. On seeing them enter, Voltaire raised himself and recited some lines of Thomson's Ode to Liberty.
"There, in the South, beneath a beneficial sky, are fortunate colonies, the calm retreat of unmerited poverty, the refuge of those driven by bigots from foreign shores. They are not founded on rapine, servitude and sorrow, to become one day the prey of some miserable tryant; no, they stand strong and united among themselves by Liberty."
Voltaire then began to speak in English with Franklin. Mme. Denis, his niece, begged him to speak in French so that the company might understand them. "I beg your pardon," said Voltaire, "I yielded to the vanity of showing that I could speak the language of a Franklin." The latter presented his grandson to him. Voltaire spread his hands over the young man's head, and said to him, "My child, remember these two words, 'God and Liberty'."
It was in this very room that Voltaire died, 30th May 1778.
Vosges (Place des) --- (IV).
No. 6. ---Musée Victor Hugo. Former Hôtel Arnauld, built in 1605, in which Victor Hugo lived from 1833 to 1848. The Museum, specially reserved for souvenirs of Victor Hugo, contains a curious drawing by the great poet concerning John Brown, the Virginian patriot. In 1859, when he learned of the arrest and the preparations for judging the latter who had taken in hand the cause of the negro slaves and urged them to revolt, Victor Hugo heard with emotion that he was to be hanged the 2nd December, the anniversary of the coup d'état of Napoléon III. Strong in his world-wide authority, the poet addressed to the United States a letter in which he prophesied the War of Secession. He, on that occasion, executed a drawing representing the form of a man who has been hanged, lighted by a pale ray on the dark background of the night.
Washington (Rue) --- (VIII).
Opened in 1788, this street was first called Rue Neuve de l'Oratoire; then in 1806, Rue de l'Oratoire du Roule; then in 1854, Rue Baillault. It received its present name in 1879.
Château de Versailles.
1. Salle 12.
Salle de 1'Indépendance des Etats-Unis. In the centre: replica of the Statue of Washington by Houdon, offered by the State of Virginia, in 1910; Senator P. Halsey, the Virginian delegate, pronounced a speech of inauguration.
To the right : bust of La Fayette by Houdon (marble) ; portrait of Rochambeau, by Larivière ; battle of the Ambush against the Boston in sight of New York (30th July 1783), by Gudin ; portraits of Generals Knox and Nathanael Greene and of Ad>miral Paul Jones, by Healy; portrait of Admiral de Grasse, by Mauzaisse; portrait of La Fayette, after Court.
At the bottom: portrait of Louis XVI, by Duplessis; capture of the Ile de la Grenade (4th July 1779) and naval battle of the Ile de la Grenade (6th July 1779), by Hue; portrait of the Comte de Vergennes, anonymous.
To the left: portrait of George Washington by Charles Wilson Peale. Prise des îles Saint-Christophe et Nevis (13th February 1784), by the Marquis de Rossel. Portraits of John Marshall, of John Hancock and of Dr. Warren by Healy. Portraits of Admiral d'Estaing, by Pierre Franque, and of Vice-Admiral de Suffren, by Latil. Combat naval devant la Chesapeake (3rd September 1781), by Gudin. Portraits of John Jay, of Benjamin Franklin and of Alexander Hamilton, by Healy. Portraits of the Duc de Lauzun, by Court, and of the Comte du Chauffault, anonymous. Bust of Franklin, by Houdon (plaster).
Between the two windows : portrait of J. F. du Cheyron, anonymous. Bust of Washington, by Houdon (marble).
3. Salle 125.
Salon des Ambassadeurs.
It was in this salon, called also the Cabinet du Conseil, that Louis XV and Louis XVI worked with the Ministers, received Ambassadors, and gave audiences.
Louis XVI there received, March 20th, 1778, Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, William Lee, Arthur Lee, and Ralph Izard, who, from that day onward, took rank openly at Court as envoys from the United States. It was the official recognition of the Treaty of Alliance which had been signed the previous 6th of February between the two nations, and secret negotiations, news of which had been brought by the Comte de Provence, direct from the Conseil du Roi to the Queen's ball, where on the night of the 20th to 21st January it actually interrupted the dancing.
This presentation of the American Commissioners to the King made a great noise: all the Americans in Paris had been convoked to Versailles and accompanied Franklin to the Château. It was a triumph for the latter; his venerable face, his white hair without powder, his plain coat of brown cloth and his round hat gained for him the sympathy of a crowd, for whom applauding the representative of Republican America was already a manner of protesting in favour of French liberty. According to a tradition which does not seem very certain, Franklin, in obedience to etiquette, had at first resigned himself to the idea of wearing a wig for this ceremony; this head-dress, of which he had lost the habit, was brought to him, but, despite all his skill, the hair-dresser could not fix the wig on Franklin's head. "This wig is too narrow," said Franklin. "No, sir," said the artist, "this wig is perfect; it is your head which is too big."
An American newspaper of the time, the New York Journal of the 6th July 1778, states that once in the presence of Louis XVI Franklin, who saw in the Alliance of France the saving of his country, burst into tears. The Comte de Vergennes, Minister of Foreign Affairs, at once presented him with his colleagues to the King, who said to them: "Assure Congress of my friendship; I hope that all this will be for the good of the two nations. I may add that for myself I am exceedingly satisfied with your conduct since you have been in my Kingdom." Franklin, bowing, answered, "Your Majesty may rely on the gratitude of Congress, and on its fidelity in the engagements which it undertakes."
On going out from the Royal audience, Franklin and the other Commissioners went to the Rue de la Pompe to the Hôtel de Noailles, there to greet Mme. de La Fayette.
Franklin has himself recounted how he was again received in May 1779 by the King, to whom he presented his new credentials as Minister Plenipotentiary, "I have placed the letter from Congress (of the 28th October 1778) in the very hands of His Majesty, who expressed his satisfaction in a most gracious manner. Since then I have been every Tuesday to the (King's) levée with the other Ministers of His Majesty."
2. Salle 116.
Salon de la Reine.
The evening of the 20fh March 1778 the American Commissioners were invited to assist at the "jeu" of the Queen; Marie Antoinette had Franklin placed beside her, and, while playing, lost no occasion of talking with him.
4. Salle 138.
To the right; two water-colours of the famous miniaturist Van Blarenberghe, representing the siege of Yorktown (No. 2264) and the surrender of the garrison of Yorktown, between the French and American Armies (No. 2265). These two water-colours were presented in June 1785 to the King to be put in his study ; they were executed by their author with the help of a drawing taken during the siege by César-Gabriel Berthier, the younger brother of the future Prince de Wagram. The two young Berthiers took part, as a matter of fact, in the American Campaign ; they were the sons of Jean Baptiste Berthier, on whose plans had been built the Hôtel des Affaires Etrangères (1761-1763) in which was signed the Treaty of Versailles of 1783.
Galerie des Glaces.
The Treaty of Versailles; which put an end to the War of 1914-1918, was signed in this Gallery, the 28th June 1919. Those who signed for the United States were: President Wilson, Robert Lansing, Henry White, Edward House and General Bliss.
During the reign of Louis XVI it was Rue de la Sous-Intendance.
No. 3. ---Formerly Hôtel de Guerre, where was installed the Ministère de la Guerre during the American War, and where Rochambeau came at the beginning of March 1780 to get the King's orders to receive the command of the troops sent to the aid of the United States.
No. 5. ---Formerly Hôtel des Affaires Etrangères, built from 1761 to 1763 at the command of the Duc de Choiseul and from the plans of Jean Baptiste Berthier, the father of the Maréchal who first bore arms during the War of Independence ; this hôtel comprised also, under Louis XVI, the offices of the Marine. It is now the Library of the city of Versailles (open every day from 12 to 5 o'clock, Sundays from 12 to 4 only).
The five consecutive halls which then formed the principal part, reserved for the Affaires Etrangères, have kept their magnificent decoration of the Louis XV epoch, and above the doors, ornamented with fine wood-carving, are paintings by Van Blarenberghe, representing views of the principal European capitals. The middle hall, the largest, bore the name of Salle de France or des Traités. It was likewise in this hall that were signed, the 3rd September 1783, the three diplomatic instruments known under the general name of Traité de Versailles. Already, the 28th December, 1776, the American Commissioners had been received by the Comte de Vergennes at the Hôtel des Affaires Etrangères.
During the morning of the 3rd September 1783, Sir David Hartley, member of the British Parliament, on the one side, and John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay, Ministers, respectively, of the United States to Holland, to Versailles, and to Madrid on the other side, had put their signatures to an act by which the Government of George III recognised the Independence of the thirteen united states.
A little later the Plenipotentiaries of the Powers met again in the Salle des Traités, and signed, with the usual ceremonies, a double Peace Treaty, the first between France and Great Britain, the second between the latter and Spain.
Eleven persons, the places of whom may still be seen on the pavement near the windows, surrounding the large marble table of this hall: the Comte de Vendergennes, Minister for Foreign Affairs, assisted by the Vicomte de Vergennes, his son, and by M. de Rayneval, brother of the negotiator of the Franco-American alliance of 1778; the Comte d'Aranda, Ambassador of Charles III of Spain, accompanied by the Chevalier de Heredia; the Duke of Manchester, Ambassador from the King of Great Britain; the Comte de Mercy, Ambassador of Austria, and his secretary ; the Prince Bariatinsky, Russian Ambassador, seconded by M. Arcadi de Markoff, Minister Plenipotentiary, and by a secretary. The representatives of Joseph II and of Catherine II acted as mediators.
In the evening M. de Vergennes reunited these diplomats at a dinner at which thirty-one sat down, and at which also assisted the United States Ministers and those of the States-General of Holland.
On the mantelpiece of the Salle des Traités a clock, a marvel of the art of clock-making, commemorates the event of the 3rd September. Above the mirror a modern copy of the portrait of the Comte de Vergennes which is to be found at the Château de Versailles, has replaced the portrait of Louis XV which was probably there formerly.
Over the doors of the Salle des Traites are paintings by Van Blarenberghe representing, to the right, a view of Madrid, and to the left a view of Naples.
This church, built by Mansart in 1684, contains, in the second chapel on the left on entering, the cenotaph of the Comte de Vergennes, Minister of Foreign Affairs under Louis XVI, whose role was most important in the negotiations which ended in the Treaty of Alliance of 1778 and in those of the Peace Treaty of 1783. This monument, executed in 1788 by the sculptor Blaise, was placed here only in 1818.
No. 7. ---It was in a simple room of this house that Washburne, United States Ambassador at Paris, established the American Legation in 1871, during the Commune. But he himself lived in Paris, where he rendered the greatest services to his compatriots.
Pompe (Rue de la).
No. 1.--- Formerly Hôtel de Noailles, where Mme. de la Fayette passed a part of her youth, and where the American Commissioners came to salute her, the 20th March 1778, after having been presented to the King. It was in a room on the first floor that La Fayette on the momentous night of the 5th to 6th October 1789 came to take a few moments rest ; during his absence the crowd invaded the Château, and, in spite of the efforts which La Fayette then made, brought the Royal family to Paris.
Potager (Rue du).
No. 1. ---House built on a part of the Hôtel des Inspecteurs des Bâtiments, in which was born, the 20th March 1741, the celebrated sculptor J. A. Houdon, author of the statue of Washington, and of the busts of Franklin, Paul Jones, Fulton, Joel Barlow.
In the spring of 1796 Thomas Paine retired to Versailles there to recover his health; it is not known what part of the city he then inhabited.
Reine (Boulevard de la).
The remitting of the conditions of the Peace Treaty to the German delegates took place the 7th May 1919, in the dining-room of the hôtel. The United States delegates who assisted at this ceremony were: President Wilson, Robert Lansing, Henry White, Edward House, General Bliss.
BELLEVUE (Seine et Oise)
The Pavillion of Bellevue, situated between the station and the Funiculaire station, formerly the hôtel of the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons Lits, which was occupied shortly before 1914 by the Dancing School of Isadora Duncan, was used as an American Hospital during the early years of the war. It was chosen at the beginning of 1919 by Mr. Whitney Warren and Mr. Hellmann, delegates from the Government of the United States, to serve as a Temporary School of Fine Arts (American Expeditionary Force Art Training Centre) for soldiers and officers of the American Army pursuing artistic careers. During the opening of this school, from March to June 1919, about 350 American students more or less benefited by its teaching, directed by a distinguished staff of American and French professors. Lectures on the History of French Art, and practical seances alternated with visits to monuments, to private collections, to museums, to Paris and a very extended radius around the capital.
Near Suresnes, at Mont Valérien, lies an American Cemetery, where rest about 1,100 soldiers of the United States. The 29th May 1919, Memorial Day was celebrated there with particular solemnity; President Wilson assisted, and, after reading a message from M. Georges Clemenceau, pronounced a discourse.
The School of Professional Re-education of the White House, at Neuilly-sur-Marne, founded the 24th July 1916 by "l'Union des Colonies Etrangères en France en faveur des victimes de la guerre," was entirely kept up at the expense of Mr. Edward T. Stotesbury of whose liberality for this work has reached nearly a million francs. This school, which came to an end the 31st October 1919 after an existence of more than three years, consecrated to the professional re-education of more than 3,000 men amputated through the war, was directed since its creation by Doctor Hubert Kresser, with the assistance of M. Louis Asscher, vice-president of the Union, delegated by the Council of Administration, and by Mr. Walter Berry, its president,
Inkermann (Boulevard d').
The buildings of the Lycée Pasteur, which were just completed when war was declared, were, from the end of August 1914, utilised by the American Ambulance (Hospital No. 2 bis.), the first in date of the War Hospitals given to France. Its name calls to mind the American War Ambulance of 1870. This present hospital, admirably arranged, included at first 600, then 1,000 beds, which were kept up by the American Chamber of Commerce of Paris, the principal cities of the United States and private subscriptions. Each ward bore the name of a city in the Uriited States.
Thanks to the generosity of Colonel Robert Bacon, former Ambassador, the American Ambulance was completed by a sanitary train which was the first of its kind to be employed during the war. A committee of distribution, presided over by Mrs. Robert Bliss, busied itself with the distribution of American gifts between the units of the front and of the rear.
The hospital possessed a field hospital, 15 sections of Norton-Harjes motor ambulances, employed solely by the French Army, likewise 25 sections of field ambulances driven by American volunteers, and the gifts of various donors.
Révolte (Rondpoint de la).
The ground comprised between the Boulevard Victor Hugo, the Boulevard de Villiers and the Route de la Révolte was occupied, during the exhibition of 1889, by "Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show."
Roule (Avenue du).
The Mairie de Neuilly, where the Treaty of Peace between the Associated and Allied Powers and Bulgaria was signed, the 28th November 1919; the United States representatives were F. Polk, H. White, and General T. H. Bliss.
No. 44. ---American Hospital.
This hospital was founded in 1906 by a society of members of the American colony, which bought, in 1908, at the corner of the Boulevard du Château, the present building, surrounded by a park of 6 acres.
The hospital was opened the 29th October 1909, but its working was delayed at the time of its opening by the inundations of January 1910, during which the American colony, by the intermediary of the American Chamber of Commerce and its bankers, Morgan, Harjes & Co., distributed 1,085,653 francs' worth of aid among the Parisian population.
The hospital was definitely opened the 1st April 1910. It is absolutely free, but contains luxurious paying rooms. Some among the 26 beds which it contains have been endowed by various American persons of note.
In 1827 six Indians from the Mississippi arrived in Paris, deputies of the Osages to the King of France. To cover the expenses of the voyage the tribe had economised for four years the products of its hunting.
On the 21st August this deputation was presented to Charles X at the Château of Saint-Cloud ; the orator of the band Marcharthitahtoongah harangued the sovereign who answered him: "The tribe of the Osages was always faithful to France whilst their country was under her domination; I hope that the Osages will be the equally faithful allies of the United States."
The old cemetery of Saint-Germain-le-Laye contains numbers of tombs of Americans who have died in France; among others that of John Meredith Read, Consul-General of the United States during the War of 1870 and the Commune.
Salle de 1'Age de Pierre. On the 2d June 1919, there took place in this hall the forwarding of the Peace Treaty to the Austrian Plenipotentiaries. The following American delegates assisted at this ceremony : R. Lansing, E. House, H. White, and General Bliss, who signed, on the 10th September, the Peace Treaty of Saint-Germain.
During Franklin's stay in Paris fashionable society fought for him, and Mme. d'Houdetot, the friend of Jean Jacques Rousseau gave, at the Château de Sannois, in that rustic corner of the valley of Montmorency, a fête in honour of the "American Socrates."
The Comte and the Comtesse d'Houdetot went to meet Franklin, the 22d April 1781, a quarter of a mile from the village of Sannois : it was the Comtesse who helped him to descend from his carriage, addressing some lines to him which, as we shall see, were not the last of the day.
They sat down to table: at the first glass of wine the assistants sang in chorus, accompanied by music, the following words :
Of Benjamin let us celebrate the memory,
Let us sing the good which he has done to mortals;
In America he will have altars,
And in Sannois we drink to his glory.
At each glass one of the guests thus sang a couplet; the Comtesse the second, the Vicomte d'Houdetot the third, the Vicomtesse the fourth, Mme. de Pernan the fifth, the Comte de Tressan the sixth, the Comte d'Apché the seventh. At the end of the meal the Comtesse, accompanied by all the guests, led the doctor into the park, where the gardener presented him with an acacia from Virginia which Franklin planted with his own hands; the remembrance of that ceremony was preserved in some lines graven on a marble table near the spot where the new tree was to be placed. On their return they met a band of musicians who accompanied all the family singing.
When the evening was over Franklin was reconducted to his carriage by the whole company, and the Comtesse said to him, by way of farewell, the following lines which she had herself composed:
Legislator of one world and benefactor of two,
Man for all time owes to you his homage,
And I on this spot fulfil
The debt of all time.
Some years later, in 1785, Mme. d'Houdetot received the title of American citizen along with the Maréchale de Beauveau, Condorcet, Saint-Lambert and some others, in an Assembly General held at the Town Hall of New Haven by the Mayor, the Aldermen, and the inhabitants.
SÈVRES (Seine et Oise)
Manufacture Nationale de Sèvres.
The factory contains a very important museum of China objects from every country in the world.
Besides the glass cases reserved to antique American pottery we must mention many "biscuits," said to be Sèvres, of the 18th Century:
Bust of Franklin, after Houdon (1777).
Medallion of Dr. Franklin.
Bust of Washington, by Boizot (1785).
America, by Boizot (1791).
Medallion symbolising the emancipation of the negroes.
The factory has for sale reproductions of certain of these works. (Apply to the Bureau des Ventes.)
The Cemetery of Suresnes is the only one in the Paris region. The other American military cemeteries of the front are situated close to the great battlefields where the American Army courageously fought beside their allies; they are situated near the following localities :
Bony, to the N. of Saint Quentin (Aisne) : 3,000 tombs (battles of May-August 1918).
Amiens (Somme) : a certain number of tombs are in the town cemeteries (battles of May-August 1918).
Juvigny, to the N. of Soissons (Aisne) : 700 tombs (battles of July-September 1918).
Ploisy, to the S. of Soissons (Aisne) : 1,000 tombs (battles of July-September 1918).
Fismes, to the S. E. of Soissons (Marne) : 200 tombs (battles of August 1918).
Belleau, to the N. of Château-Thierry (Aisne) : 2,700 tombs (battles of June-July 1918).
Seringe and Nesles, to the E. of Château-Thierry (Aisne): 1,000 tombs (battles of June-July 1918).
Beaumont, to the S. E. of Sedan (Ardennes) : 4,000 tombs (battles of October 1918).
Romagne-sous-Montfaucon, to the N. of Montfaucon (Meuse) : 24,000 tombs (battles of September-October 1918).
Thiaucourt, to the N. of Toul (Meuthe et Moselle) : 4,000 tombs (battles of September 1918).
The Château de Tilly belonged to the Admiral de Grasse, who played an important part at sea during the American War.
François-Joseph-Paul, Comte de Grasse de Rouville, Marquis de Tilly (1723-1788), distinguished himself, from 1778, at the Battle of Ushant, was named chef d'escadre, and took part in different affairs under d'Estaing and the Comte de Guiche; in 1781 charged to conduct an important convoy as far as Martinique, he gave chase to the fleet of the English Admiral Hood, and captured the Island of Tabago; then the 5th September 1781 he defeated the enemy fleet at the entry of the Chesapeake, disembarked before Yorktown and brought help to the allied armies. He even offered to engage his fortune, his Château de Tilly, and his possessions in Saint Dominique. He had just gone to sea again to stop the route to Admiral Hood when Cornwallis surrendered.
To recompense him for having taken so large a part in this capitulation, the American Congress voted him its solemn thanks; offered him four cannons taken from the English, with his name and arms on them. Louis XVI authorised him to accept them, and to place them in his Château de Tilly, where can be still seen, in the court of honour, the loopholes which sheltered them. Taken at the time of the Revolution, these cannons were dragged to Dreux and converted into money.
Grasse was made prisoner in 1782 by the English, after a splendid struggle near Saintes in the Antilles, against the two fleets of Admirals Hood and Rodney. Interned in England, he there made himself still useful by occupying himself with the negotiations for the Treaty of Versailles.
He died in Paris in 1788, and, according to his wish, his heart was taken to Tilly where it is still preserved in the Church.
This grand stadium, situated in the Bois de Vincennes between the Camp of Saint Maur and the School of Joinville-le-pont, was built in less than four months on the initiative of General Pershing. The ground was given by the French Government, and the funds necessary to the enterprise, about 350,000 francs, were furnished by the Y. M. C. A. The plans were drawn by French engineers, but the construction and the workmanship are entirely American.
The levelling of the ground necessitated the carrying away of 5,000 cubic metres of earth, and the carting away of 26,000 cubic metres of slag.
The stadium, in the shape of an immense horseshoe, can contain 22,000 people seated and 18,000 standing, that is to say, 40,000 spectators. It is entirely made of concrete. It served as the theatre from the 22d June to the 6th July 1919, for the famous Pershing Olympiad, the greatest athletic event since the last Stockholm Olympiad of 1912. The athletic soldiers of nearly all the Allied countries took part in the competitions inaugurated by General Pershing in the presence of President Raymond Poincaré,
The Consuls-General of the United States at Paris, or Vice-Consuls having acted as Consuls, have been, since the creation of the United States :
C. Fulwar Skipwith.
David Bailie Warden.
Isaac Cox Barnet.
Dunscombe Bradford, Vice-Consul.
John Carroll Brent and Charles W. Barnet, Vice-Consuls.
Samuel G. Goodrich.
Duncan K. MacRae.
George Hutton, Vice-Consul.
Henry W. Spencer.
Thomas H. Dudley, Vice-Consul.
Edward Tuck, Vice-Consul.
John G. Nicolay.
John Meredith Read, Jr., Consul-General.
Alfred T. A. Torbert
Robert M. Hooper, Vice-Consul-General.
George L. Rathbone.
Adam E. King.
Samuel E. Morse.
John K. Gowdy.
Frank M. Mason.
Alexander M. Thackara.
Many American writers have resided in Paris. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) came three times to Paris; first in June 1833, on his way from Ferney, where he had visited Voltaire's house. He visited the Sorbonne, the Louvre, the Natural History Museum, and heard some famous lectures. On the 4th July he dined with La Fayette and about one hundred members of the American colony. His second visit took place in May 1848; he went to see Rachel play in Phèdre at the Théâtre-Français, and heard Leverrier and Michelet at the Sorbonne. He returned for the last time to Paris in March 1873, and there met Renan and Taine.
Nathaniel Hawthorne came to Paris about 1860 where one of his favourite promenades was to loiter along the riverside.
Francis Parkman (1823-1893), the historian of the French Colonisation of America, came to work for some time in Paris. He published, among other works, "The Pioneers of France in the New World," "The Jesuits in North America," "Montcalm and Wolfe," etc. He liked going about Paris on the tops of omnibuses, and on the little river boats, and he especially preferred the quarters of the Boulevards and the Tuileries.
The poet William Cullen Bryant came six times to Paris. The writer Charles Sumner resided in Paris on five occasions, the first of which was in 1839.
Edgar Allan Poe crossed through Paris, which city he has chosen for the scene of some of his "Extraordinary Tales."
Major Alonzo Huntington came to work in Paris at the Archives Nationales, and at the Archives de la Guerre, for his work on the French Combatants in the American War (1778-1783). He was helped in his work by Colonel Chaillé-Long, special assistant commissioner at the Exhibition of 1900, and by Edward P. MacLean, American Vice-Consul in Paris. He was for four months president of the American Club at Paris.
Moncure D. Conway, who wrote in Paris the "Life of Thomas Paine," lived in the Rue de Richelieu, at the Hôtel de Strasbourg, near the Bibliothèque Nationale, where he often went to work. It was there that he died.
The poet Theodore Tilton lived in Paris from 1883 to 1908 ; he rose often at 4 o'clock in the morning to go and write or to walk in the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne. He is buried near Fontainebleau at Barbizon, according to a wish he had expressed.
Colonel Theodore Ayrault Dodge, of Pittsfield (Mass.), military historian of value, lived many years in Paris.
Louis Moreau Gottschalk, the celebrated American pianist, studied music in Paris with Ch. Halle. In 1852 he made his tour of Europe, during which he was enthusiastically received at Paris.
Patience Wright (1725-1785) came to London, and then to Paris, in 1781. She became acquainted in the latter city with Franklin, whose portrait she made, representing him in the act of making electrical experiments.
John Trumbull (1756-1843) arrived in Paris in 1787. He there made some portraits of French officers who had fought with Washington, as well as the portrait of Jefferson, with whom he lived. While staying here he saw Talleyrand and dined with Lucien Bonaparte.
John Vanderlyn (1775-1852), perhaps considered as the first American painter who came to study in Paris, where he stayed on two occasions. His first residence, which dates from 1796, lasted five years ; it was during the second, begun in 1803 and which lasted twelve years, that he publicly received, in 1808, from Napoléon I, a gold medal for his painting "Marius in the midst of the ruins of Carthage''; it was the first work of an American to be exhibited in a French Salon. He refused the offers which were made to him to stay on in France and returned to America shortly after having finished his masterpiece "Ariadne at Naxos." During his stay in Paris he made a portrait of Joel Barlow.
Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860) 'came to Europe in 1802, bringing with him a skeleton of a mammoth. He made a first stay in Paris in 1807, visiting the Louvre, and making the portraits of French persons of note. He returned to America to bring back his family from there. He lived quite near the Louvre during his second residence at Paris.
G. P. A. Healy, of Boston (1813-1894), was for long the senior American artist in Paris, where he exhibited for fifty years. He had been in Paris two years when in 1836 he exhibited two portraits of men ; he was the only American who had exhibited at five successive salons before 1841. Among the six hundred portraits executed by him may be mentioned those of General Lewis Cass, United States Ambassador, of Washington, executed for an entertainment at the Embassy, and of King Louis-Philippe: this latter asked of him, for the galleries of paintings at Vervailles, the portraits of Washington, Jackson, Clay, Webster, Calhoun, Jay, and other celebrated Americans. In 1841 the American colony at Paris ordered from him the portrait of Guizot, who had just published his study of Washington, and offered it to the National Museum at Washington.
William Morris Hunt (1824-1879) visited successively London, Munich and Paris, where he joined his brother, a pupil at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, who helped his master, the architect, Hector Lefuel, in his work at the Louvre and the Tuileries. He was strongly influenced by Millet, for whom he showed a profound admiration, which caused him to be nicknamed "the mad American." He joined Millet at Barbizon, from whence they together visited the Louvre ; he was the first American to possess bronzes of Barye. He saw in Millet and Barye the greatest artists of the epoch, and it, is thanks to him that the Boston museums possess some of their works. He painted specimens of the streets of Paris and exhibited for the first time at the Salon of 1852, then in 1853 and 1855. At that date he returned to the United States. He happened to be in Paris at the same time as his fellow-countryman, George Innes.< John La Farge was his pupil there.
George Innes (1825-1894), the celebrated landscape painter, who resided on several occasions in France, and especially in Italy, was strongly influenced by the Barbizon school. He exhibited at Paris, particularly at the Exhibitions of 1867 and 1878. It was at Paris, in 1854, that his son, George Innes, the animal painter, was born; he became the pupil of Bonnat, and also exhibited in Paris.
John La Farge (1835-1910) came to Paris in 1856. He was the son of a French officer, originally from Charente, who had married the daughter of a planter of Saint Dominique, Binsse de Saint Victor, uncle of the famous critic, Paul de Saint Victor. La Farge was sent to Paris to become acquainted with this Saint Victor family ; it was through his cousin that he got to know the painter Théodore Chassériau, his first master. He entered the studio of Thomas Couture, already frequented by numbers of American artists such as William Hunt. He became intimate with Puvis de Chavannes.
Frank Boggs (1855- ) was the pupil of Gerome at Paris. He painted views of Paris, many of which are in the Musée Carnavalet.
William T. Dannat, Julius L. Stewart, Alexander Harrison, William Leroy Metcalf, Abbott H. Thayer, George de Forest Brush, Thomas W. Dewing, Gari Melchers, Ridgway Knight, Humphreys Johnstone, Humphrey Moore, Frederik A. Bridgman, Seymour S. Thomas, Robert MacCameron, H. O. Tanner, have likewise studied painting in Paris, where Miss Mary Cassatt, a former pupil of Degas, lived for a long time.
Among sculptors Paul Wayland Bartlett, George Gray Barnard, David Edstrom also came to Paris, where, notably, the first is the author of the Statue of La Fayette erected in the Square of the Louvre.
EDITOR'S NOTE. To attempt to give a complete list of the American charitable organizations with affiliations in France during the late war would require more space than this little book would permit. Therefore after careful consideration the editor has deemed it wise to mention only those that are still actively engaged in their work at the time this volume goes to press (January, 1921).
It is possible that there may be omissions, but they are wholly involuntary and are due to the difficulty in obtaining swift and correct information, together with the fact that post war charities are constantly shifting their temporary Parisian headquarters. The following list contains some names without addresses, which means either that the charity while working for France has no Parisian headquarters, or that it has not been possible to get into communication with them in time to publish their addresses. Inquiry at the American Consular offices (see Italiens, rue des, p. 66) will doubtless bring forth any information that may be required.
Contrary to the plan adopted throughout the volume this list is given by the name of the organization and the street is mentioned afterward.
American Artists Committee of One Hundred. (No Paris headquarters.) Extends aid through French societies to needy French artists or their families. American Charitable Fund Association. 15 Rue de la Paix.
American Committee of the Argonne Association. 30 Rue des Dames. Maintains model boarding-out system and vocational training for French orphans.
American Committee for Devastated France. 15 Boulevard Lannes. Reconstruction work for civilian population of France in the Aisne District.
American Committee for "La Rennaissance des Cités" Provides part of funds for the French Organization which assists devastated cities with plans for reconstruction architectural, legal and other.
American Friends Service Committee. 47 Ave. de Strasbourg, Chalons-sur-Marne. See Denain (Bd. de) Gare de l'Est. Engaged in completing reconstruction work in France.
American Girls Club. 4 Rue de Chevreuse.
American Memorial Hospital. Building endowed hospital for women and children in Rheims.
American Ouvroir Funds. (No Paris headquarters.} Secures American adopters for French and Belgian war orphans,
American Red Cross. 4 Rue Chevreuse.
American Relief Society. 233 bis Rue du Fbg. St. Honoré.
Anglo-American, Y. M. C. A., 160 Rue Montaigne. Founded in 1868.
British-American Ada Leigh Home. 77 Ave. de Wagram. Reserved for English and American girls. Dates from 20 December 1872. This same mission has founded at 35 Bd. Bineau, Neuilly, a home for English and American Orphans, and at 18 Rue de Milan, Paris, a home for governesses and for young women studying the Beaux arts. This latter establishment bears the name of Washington House,
Committee for Men Blinded in Battle. 14 Rue Daru, Paris. Cares for and re-educates blinded French soldiers.
Franco-American Committee for the Protection of the Children of the Frontier. 77 Rue d'Amsterdam. Cares for homeless children of France and Belgium in colonies, from which they are repatriated as rapidly as possible.
French Heroes Lafayette Memorial Fund, Rue Marboeuf. Maintains various activities at Château Lafayette, later to become a memorial.
French Restoration Fund. Bastion 55, Bd. Lannes, Paris. Raises Funds for restoration of homes, churches, public buildings, etc., in France.
French Tubercular Children's Fund. 21 Quai de Bourbon. Maintains homes and sanatoria and provides general care for tubercular children.
Holy Trinity Lodge. 4 Rue Pierre Nicole.
Paris British and American Schools. Rue des Acacias. Founded in 1832, they are placed under the patronage of the Ambassadors of Great Britain and the United States, and various other personalities. Intended for children of the working classes speaking English, they have rendered important services to the Anglo-American colony, whose voluntary contributions constitute their only resource.
Knights of Columbus, 16 Place de la Madeleine.
Permanent Blind Relief War Fund. 17 Rue de Liège. Conducts work of a constructive nature for blinded soldiers and sailors.
Students Hostel, 93 Bd. St. Michel.
Y. M. C. A., 46 Rue de Provence.
Y. W. C. A., 33 Rue de Caumartm.
American Hospital. 44 Rue Chauveau.