History
of the
American Field Service in France

"FRIENDS OF FRANCE"
1914-1917
TOLD BY ITS MEMBERS

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS

 BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY

The Riverside Press Cambridge

1920

TO

OUR MOTHERS

before whose silent Sacrifice,
deep, hidden in their Hearts,
our Part seems mere Adventure.

PREFATORY NOTE

THE American Field Service, as a group of youths serving the French Army in the Great War, is a thing of the past. And this is its history. The reader must not assume, however, that the American Field Service no longer exists, or that there will never be occasion for record of its further accomplishment. Although the members when they enlisted in 1915, 1916, and 1917, only pledged themselves to the French Army for a limited period, it is within the truth to state that, whether or not they realized it at the time, they enlisted for life in the service of France.

Even before this record has gone to the press, and while the United States is still nominally at war, the peace plans of the Field Service are well under way ---plans for the perpetuation under its auspices of fraternal relations among French and American youth for generations to come. A series of American Field Service fellowships for American students in French Universities has already been established, and projects have been formulated which it is hoped will ultimately result in securing a permanent endowment for a Field Service fellowship in memory of each and every one of the one hundred and twenty-six Field Service men who gave their lives during the war --- either a fellowship for an American student in a French university, or a fellowship for a French student in an American university. These fellowships not only will furnish fitting memorials of the Field Service men whose lives were sacrificed to the Allied Cause, but will give living and enduring impulse to the advancement of understanding and friendship between France and the United States, which was ever the fundamental Field Service aim.

The section histories, diaries, letters, and sketches comprising these volumes, are entirely the contributions of men who were part of the American Field Service. Many of these were collected at the Paris headquarters during the early days, but it was not until the Service ceased to exist as a volunteer organization that any effort was made to compile them with a view to producing a complete record comprising all the activities of the Service. While the volume published under the name of Friends of France, in 1916, contained numerous accounts of the work of the early days ---many of them being here reprinted --- that volume was of necessity more or less provisional and incomplete. The aim of these volumes is to fill in the gaps and finish the story, to give the final record of all the sections, new as well as old, and of the work of the many hundreds of younger volunteers as well as of the pioneers of 1915 and 1916.

As in Friends of France the stories of the several sections have been composed in the main of excerpts from articles, diaries, and home letters of different members, a method of composition necessarily involving some duplication and incoherence. It is believed, however, that this is compensated for by the veracity of the first-hand material so presented, and that whatever the history may have lost in smoothness and unity is offset by a gain in sincerity, animation, and originality.

Among those to whom thanks are due for successively assisting in the compilation of this work are Dr. Raymond Weeks, of the Paris staff, Mr. Frank J. Taylor, of Section Ten, Mr. Theodore Stanton and Captain Arthur J. Putnam and Mr. Robert A. Donaldson, of Section Seventy. The final selection and revision of the material has been mainly the work of Lieutenant James W. D. Seymour, of Section Seventeen.

Grateful appreciation is owing to the French artists André Fraye, Charles Huard, and Bernard Naudin, and to the following men of the Field Service, Waldo Peirce, S.S.U. 3, C. Le Roy Baldridge, T.M.U., F. L. Sexton, S.S.U. 14, George W. Hall, S.S.U. 70, and Harry de Maine, who contributed the many drawings which decorate and brighten these pages.

To those men of the Service who have contributed articles, poems, and photographs, and to many parents and friends who have aided by forwarding material from home letters and diaries, thanks are also due.

THE AMERICAN FIELD SERVICE
April, 1920

CONTENTS

The Ambulance Sections
Field Service Haunts and Friends
The Camion Sections
Literature of the Field Service
Appendices
Illustrations
Memorial Volume

V O L U M E   I 

PREFATORY NOTE
INTRODUCTION
The Field Service (A. Piatt Andrew)
Some of the Early Problems (A. Piatt Andrew)
The Effort in America (Henry D. Sleeper)
The Growth of the Service (Stephen Galatti)

 

THE AMBULANCE SECTIONS

SECTION ONE
Henry Sydnor Harrison
Joshua G. B. Campbell
Tracy J. Putnam
Robert W. Imbrie
Roy H. Stockwell
John H. McFadden, Jr.
W. Yorke Stevenson
Edward A. G. Wylie

SECTION TWO
James R. McConnell
Leslie Buswell
Carlyle H. Holt
Henry Sheahan
Frank H. Gailor
Edward N. Seccombe
John R. Fisher
William H. C. Walker
John E. Boit
Henry D. M. Sherrerd
Harmon B. Craig
Ewen MacIntyre
Edward N. Seccombe

SECTION THREE

On the Western Front
Preston Lockwood
Tracy J. Putnam
Waldo Peirce
Luke C. Doyle
Stephen Galatti
Walter K. Rainsford
Alwyn Inness-Brown
William M. Barber
Walter K. Rainsford
Charles R. Codman, Jr.
Edward I. Tinkham

In the Orient
Charles Baird, Jr.
Lovering Hill
Robert W. Imbrie
Lovering Hill
Donald C. Armour
J. Marquand Walker
John Munroe
Lovering Hill
J. Marquand Walker
Robert W. Imbrie
Charles Baird, Jr.
Charles Amsden
John N. d'Este

SECTION FOUR
George Rockwell, Jr.
Richard C. Ware
Wade Ford Bigelow
Leon H. Buckler
Charles H. Hunkins
Hugh J. Kelleher

SECTION EIGHT
William B. Seabrook
Malbone H. Birckhead
Grenville T. Keogh
Charles L. Watkins
Austin B. Mason
Harry L. Dunn

SECTION NINE
George R. Cogswell
Carleton Burr
William C. Sanger, Jr.
Harvey C. Evans

THE VOSGES DETACHMENT
Joseph R. Greenwood

V O L U M E   I I

SECTION TEN
Hamilton Lillie
William D. Swan, Jr.
James W. Harle, Jr.
Henry M. Suckley
Frank J. Taylor
Burnet C. Wohlford
William J. Losh

SECTION TWELVE
Croom W. Walker, Jr.
Julien H. Bryan
Ralph N. Barrett

SECTION THIRTEEN
Benjamin F. Butler, Jr.
John M. Grierson
Frank X. Laflamme

SECTION FOURTEEN
Joseph H. Eastman
William J. Losh
Franklin B. Skeele

SECTION FIFTEEN
Clitus Jones
Keith Vosburg
Jerome Preston
Jerome Preston

SECTION SIXTEEN
Franklin D. W. Glazier
Alpheus E. Shaw
James H. Lewis
Marshal G. Penfield

SECTION SEVENTEEN
James W. D. Seymour
James W. D. Seymour
Basil K. Neftel
Carleton F. Wright

SECTION EIGHTEEN
Ernest R. Schoen
Ernest R. Schoen
Robert A. Donaldson

SECTION NINETEEN
Paul A. Rie
Charles C. Jatho
Frank G. Royce
John D. Loughlin
Edward P. Shaw

SECTION TWENTY-SIX
Charles E. Bayly, Jr.
Gilbert N. Ross
Joseph Lévêque
Ellis D. Slater

 

SECTION TWENTY-SEVEN
Howard R. Coan
Howard R. Coan
Coleman G. Clark

SECTION TWENTY-EIGHT
Frederic R. Colie
John B. Hurlbut
Stanley Hill
Converse Hill

SECTION SIXTY-FOUR
Richard W. Westwood

SECTION SIXTY-FIVE
Louis G. Caldwell
Raymond W. Gauger
Paul A. Redmond

SECTION TWENTY-NINE
John T. Walker, Jr.
Richard O. Battles

SECTION SIXTY-SIX
Stanley B. Jones
William G. Rice, Jr.
Perley R. Hamilton
Walter D. Carr

SECTION SIXTY-SEVEN
Kenneth M. Reed
Norman C. Nourse

SECTION SIXTY-EIGHT
Sidney C. Doolittle
Sidney C. Doolittle

SECTION SIXTY-NINE
Henry B. Rigby
Robert R. Ball

SECTION THIRTY
Albert E. MacDougall
Albert E. MacDougall
J. Oliver Beebe

SECTION SEVENTY
Robert A. Donaldson
Robert A. Donaldson
Arthur J. Putnam

SECTION THIRTY-ONE
Kent D. Hagler
C. C. Battershell
Gordon F. L. Rogers

SECTION SEVENTY-ONE
Philip Shepley
Edward A. Weeks, Jr.

SECTION THIRTY-TWO
Gurnee H. Barrett
John S. Clapp

SECTION THIRTY-THREE
Robert Rieser
Richard C. Paine

SECTION SEVENTY-TWO
John H. Woolverton

FIELD SERVICE HAUNTS AND FRIENDS

TWENTY-ONE RUE RAYNOUARD
Raymond W. Gauger
Raymond Weeks
Stephen Galatti
Joseph R. Greenwood
David Darrah
James W. D. Seymour
TRAINING AND SUPPLY CENTRES
John R. Fisher
John R. Fisher & H. Burt Herrick
Robert A. Donaldson
Stephen Galatti

TWO LOYAL FRIENDS OF THE FIELD SERVICE
Arthur J. Putnam
Preston Lockwood

FRENCH OFFICERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SERVICE
Stephen Galatti.

V O L U M E   I I I

THE CAMION SECTIONS

THE STORY OF THE RÉSERVE MALLET
The Camion Caravan (poem) - George Amick
A Tribute of French General Headquarters to the Camion Service - Commandant Doumenc
Origin of the Service - A. Piatt Andrew
The Réserve Mallet - Frank O. Robinson
The Training-Camps of Chavigny Farm and Dommiers - Frederick W. Kurth

CAMION DIARIES
Donald F. Bigelow
David Darrah

CAMION SIDELIGHTS
Paul F. Cadman
Malcolm Cowley
Walter P. Hall
Arthur C. Watson
Malcolm Cowley
Jack Wright
Malcolm Cowley
Malcolm Cowley
Alden B. Sherry
Greayer Clover
Elmer M. Johnson
Richard D. Sias
Richard V. Banks
Frederick W. Kurth

SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF THE CAMION SERVICE UNDER THE U.S. ARMY

Camion (poem) Elisha Whittlesey

LITERATURE OF THE FIELD SERVICE

INTRODUCTION

SKETCHES
The Ambulancier and his Car - Robert W. Imbrie
Notes from Pont-à-Mousson - J. Halcott Glover
A Funeral - James R. McConnell
Hartmannsweilerkopf - Waldo Peirce
Hartmann's, 1915 - John W. Clark
First Impressions in Section Four - Richard C. Ware
Barracks Life - Richard C. Ware
Kelley's Death in Section Four - Roswell S. Sanders
Permissions and Transitions - Richard C. Ware
The First Night Drive - C. Claflin Davis
The Great Road - Emery Pottle
Verdun - 1916 - Robert W. Imbrie
The Music of the "Sambre-et-Meuse" - Coleman T. Clark
The Brancardiers - Philip D. Orcutt
Les Tirailleurs d'Afrique - Robert W. Imbrie
Into Albania - Robert W. Imbrie
A Night at a Balkan Ambulance Poste - Harry W. Frantz
Sketches of Section Life - Clarence J. Griffin
American Troops in Paris - Roger P. Stone
The Fourth of July, 1917 - Edward D. Kneass
War Thoughts - R. B., S.S. U. 12
Fragments from Four Sectors - Henry G. Crosby
Serving with the French - Frederick W. Kurth
"Ce n'est pas nous - C'est les Poilus " Lansing Warren

POEMS
Un Blessé à Montauville - Emery Pottle
The Death Fires - Sidney C. Doolittle
The Boys Who Never Grew Up - Charles L. Watkins
Sings the Shell of a Seventy-Five - Ewen MacIntyre
A Sermon for Young Soldiers - Jefferson B. Fletcher
Legions of Light - Paul M. Fulcher
La Belle France - Russell D. Greene
To France - W. C. Sanger, Jr.
Trenches - Hardwicke Nevin
Ostel, 1917 - Malcolm Cowley
Song - P. M. F.
A Summer Convoi - Arthur U. Crosby
Convoy - Robert A. Donaldson
A Military Graveyard - Sherman L. Conklin
Tedium - R. A. D.
Poilus - M. C.
We Had Great Argument - M. C.
The Heroes - Philip Wood
Malmaison - Forrest B. Wing
War Ruins - R. A. D.
Song of the Casualty List - Lansing Warren
Fog at Dawn - R. A. D.
The Ghosts of Verdun - S.S. U. 13
The Song of the Ambulance - G. Hinman Barrett
Poste de Secours - R. A. D.
His Long Repos - S.S. U. 13
Dawn - S. L. C
The Poilus - R. A. D.
Their Meed - S.S. U. 13
Sonnet of a War-Sick Man - Frederick W. Kurth
Road to the Hospital - R. A. D.
The Last Poems - S. L. C.
To S. L. C. - J. B. Calvo
In Memoriam - M. S. Goldman
Chavigny - F. W. K.
For France To-Day - R. A. D.
Overcoats of Blue - R. A. D.
The Roads - J. W. D. Seymour
Tribute - R. A. D.
A Night in Winter - W. C. S., Jr.
Envoi - R. A. D.
River Marne - David Darrah
The Children of To-Morrow - W. C. S., Jr.
Spirit of France - W. C. S., Jr.
Sonnet to Some Poppies - J. B. C.
Night on the Front - J. B. C.
One Year - R. A. D.
A Dying Soldier's Prayer - J. B. C.
Song - J. B. C.
American Negro and Senegalese - P. M. F.
Monument Enough - Raymond W. Gauger
Mirage - R. W. G.
Ballad of French Service - M. C.
"Under Cover of Darkness" - F. W. K.
Night Road - R. A. D.

Epic Years - R. A. D.
Dawn - W. C. S., Jr.
The Enemy Retreats - W. C. S., Jr.
To an Infirmière - D. D.
On Passing the Reims Cathedral at Twilight - D. D.
La Paix - D. D.
Sunset Light - W. C. S., Jr.
In After Years - W. C. S., Jr.
Fathers Slain to Sons Unborn - P. M. F.
The Tide has Turned - W. C. S., Jr.

HUMOROUS SKETCHES
Rules for Convoys from Section Eight - C. L. Watkins
All about Staff Cars - L. Warren
The American Ambulance Man - L. W.
On Buvettes - L. W.
Section Ravitaillement - P. A. Rie
In a Hospital - R. Scholle
Letters from the Rear - P. M. Fulcher
A Letter to the Statue of Liberty - L. W.
The Ambulancier's Primer - S. C. Doolittle
A Revised Ford Manual - S. Garden
The Essence Gatherer - S. L. Conklin
A Lost Art - S. C. D.
"Bull" - L. W.
When the Réserve goes "en Perm" - F. W. Kurth
Translations of French Road Signs - L. W.
A Letter from "Lance" to the Kaiser - L. W.
Aix-and-Pains, or Over the Top with M. P. - L. W.
Our Country as She Sounds - L. W.
Private Stormfield's Visit to Heaven - L. W.
Polyglotitis - L. W.
Système D - W. E. Bruns
Journaux du Front --- Soixante-Neuf - F. Kneeland

LIGHTER VERSE
Hunk o' Tin - C. C. Battershell
We Wish It Would - L. Warren
Northward Ho! - R. A. Donaldson
Camouflage All! - L. W.
"Système D" - R. A. D.
It's Hades - S. L. Conklin
Nix on the Heroic Stuff - S. C. Doolittle
Fatalism - S. L. C.
Permission! - L. W.
C'est Ça - L. W.
Around our Stove - L. W.
Imitative America - R. A. D.
The Slacker - B. C. Wohlford
En Repos - R. M. Young
Verse That Ought Not to be Free - W. E. Powers
War's Annoyances - R. A. D.
A Duffer's Duffle - L. W.
To Helen! - L. W.
En Repos - R. A. D.
Twenty Years from now - R. A. D.
In that Little Old Buvette - D. W. S.
Rumors - An Optimist
I Changed my Mind - L. W.
Old F. S. Coat - R. A. D.
Non-Com Nonsense - P. A. Rie
Field Service Days - B. C. W.
On Finding my Civilian Clothes in my Suitcase
        at the "Cinéma " - L.W. 

END OF THE WAR SKETCHES AND VERSES
Some Ambulance Roads - Walter J. Gores
When the Armistice Came - W. J. G.
"The Day" at Luxembourg - Frederick W. Kurth
Le Dernier Jour - David Darrah
The End - S.S. U. 19
November 11, 1918, in Paris - N. H. Reynolds
Armistice Morning in Paris - R. N.
After the Armistice - Robert A. Donaldson
Immortal Battle-fields - William C. Sanger, Jr.
Hail! - G. Hinman, Barrett
The Poilu - D. D.
The Glorious Dead - F. W. K.
Peace - F. W. K.
"Souvenons-Nous - R. A. D.
Afterthoughts
Armistice Day - John B. Whitton
On the Rhine - R. A. D.
The Guns are Stilled - W. C. S., Jr.
The Page is Turned - R. A. D.

APPENDICES

A. ROLL OF HONOR
B. DECORATIONS
C. COLLEGES REPRESENTED
D. FIELD SERVICE MEN AS OFFICERS
E. FRENCH ORGANIZATIONS SERVED
F. SCHEDULE OF EACH SECTION'S ASSIGNMENT
G. ROSTER OF VOLUNTEERS
H. VOLUNTEERS ARRIVING IN FRANCE DURING MILITARIZATION
I. THE AMERICAN STAFF
J. NAMES AND DONORS OF CARS
K. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE FIELD SERVICE
L. GLOSSARY OF FRENCH EXPRESSIONS IN THE TEXT
M. THE FIELD SERVICE AND THE FUTURE

ILLUSTRATIONS

V O L U M E   I V

Memorial Volume of the American Field Service in France
Roll of Honor


Introduction