Notes and Quotations from Official Records

American Hospital Archives
Samuel N. Watson Collection


I. From the Archives of the American Hospital of Paris

August 1914 to April 1915

Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee of the American Ambulance of Paris

3 August, 1914 at Dr. A. J. Magnin's residence:

Letters to Myron T. Herrick: Ambulance organized

and:

Article I: "There shall be founded under the auspices of the American Hospital, and the official patronage of the American Ambassador, Mr Myron T. Herrick, an Ambulance for the care of the wounded, under the title "The American Ambulance of Paris"."


 Meetings of the  Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris (in red)
 Meetings of its  Ambulance Committee (in black)

5 August

Finance committee to be: Mr. Dalliba, Mr Monahan, Mr L.V. Twyeffort and Dr. S.N. Watson
and account to be opened with Morgan, Harjes & Company
cheque of 25,000 Frs from Mrs James Henry Smith as first donation
Mrs Herrick to be authorized to collect fund for the American Ambulance

7 August, at 149, Bd. Haussmann, Paris

Mr. F.W. Monahan, President, Drs. Du Bouchet, Koenig, Magnin, Turner, Whitman, Rev. Dr. Watson, Messrs. Kipling and Twyeffort to secure official authorization by French Minister for War

no wounded for 10 days

Dr. Watson's telegram to Dr. Barton Jacobs to ask him to collect funds, also: "Dr. Watson also stated that the Duchesse de Tallyrand was cabling to Miss Helen Gould asking her interest and co-operation in America for the Ambulance."

"Dr. Turner submitted a draft of the proposed notices for the New York Herald and the Daily Mail, and also for the American newspapers."

8 August, at Bd. Haussmann

Mme. Harjes, representing the Ladies' Committee, "would bring each day to the Executive Office the amount she had collected."

"Dr. Dubouchet pointed out the necessity of each volunteer entering into an obligation, before acceptance by the Committee, to conform strictly to the regulations which would be established for the conduct of the Ambulance, and it was decided that Dr. Magnin should incorporate a clause to this effect in the engagement to be sent to persons offering their services."

"It was decided that nurses and auxiliaries should furnish their own washable gowns, also caps and noiseless shoes."

11 August at Bd. Haussmann

"Mr. Dalliba laid before the meeting certain questions as to the legality of the constitution of the American Ambulance of Paris, its relationship to the American Hospital, its power to incur responsibilities and contract liabilities, the method to be adopted in appealing to the American public for contributions, etc. all questions which had been raised at a meeting held at the American Embassy. A lengthy discussion took place, but no definite conclusions were arrived at, except that it has decided to lay before a meeting to be held on the 12th inst. at the American Embassy the authorization given by the French Minister of War, and that the members of the Executive Committee should discuss all the points raised with the parties interested with a view to arriving at a mutual understanding."

12 August at American Embassy, 5 Rue François 1er at 11 am

"RESOLVED further that a Committee be appointed as speedily as possible, to be known as the Ambulance Committee, and that such Committee take charge of the conduct of said Military Section of the American Hospital, subject to such rules and directions as may from time to time be prescribed by the Board of Governors." 876-7

Hospital's bank account to be used for Military Section (Ambulance)

same date, at the American Embassy

"RESOLVED that the American Hospital accept the use granted to it gratuitously by the French Ministry of War of the Lycée Pasteur for Military Hospital purposes."

"RESOLVED further that a Committee be appointed as speedily as possible, to be know as the Ambulance Committee..."

"Mr. Samuels is requested to submit to the Board a written opinion as to the power of the American Hospital of Paris to surgically and medically treat persons who are not Americans."

13 August, at Bd. Haussmann

committee to conduct the Ambulance or section for wounded named: Mr. Monahan, Chairman,
Benét, H. H. Harjes, Carroll, Twyeffort, Dr. Watson: Board of Managers of the Ambulance Section of the American Hospital

in charge of finances: Mr. H. H. Harjes, Chairman, Mr. W. S. Dalliba, Mr. F. W. Monahan

and: "Messrs. Dalliba, Harjes and Benét be, and they hereby are, appointed a committee to nominate a body to be known as the "Committee on Contributions of the American Hospital""

"RESOLVED, That Dr. Du Bouchet be, and hereby is, appointed a Committee of one to decline the offer made by the war Department of one franc per man per day in respect of the wounded to be treated in the Ambulance of the American Hospital of Paris, and express the thanks of the Committee for this offer, explaining that the American Hospital of Paris prefers to make this Ambulance a strictly American work, all expenses to be covered by American contributions."

14 August, 1914

"RESOLVED : That in pursuance of the resolutions passed at the morning meeting of the Board of Governors on August 12th 1914, providing for a committee to conduct the Ambulance or section for wounded, the following be and the same hereby are named:

Mr. Monahan, Chairman
Mr. Benét
Mr. H. H. Harjes
Mr. L. V. Twyeffort
Dr. Watson

and ex-officio the President and Vice-President at the time acting. the same to be known as the Board of Managers of the Section for the Wounded of the American Hospital.

RESOLVED further, that the following named members of said committee be given the supervision of the finances of said section and that they may be known as the sub-committee on Finance :

Mr. H. H. Harjes, Chairman
Mr. W. S. Dalliba
Mr. F. W. Monahan.

(5000 Francs to be placed in their hands)

RESOLVED That Messrs Dalliba, Harjes and Benét be, and they hereby are, appointed a committee to nominate a body to be know as the "Committee on Contributions of the American Hospital", the purpose of which will be to solicit funds in an organized way for the Section for the Wounded..."

15 August at Bd. Haussmann

defining Medical Board members

defining Medical Board of the Ambulance Section

defining committees with chairmen (Transportation, Building, Furnishing, Medical Supplies, Nursing, Commissary, Convalescent, Subscriptions and Publicity, Embassy, War Department, Linen and Laundry)

Honorary Committee

members of Women's Auxiliary of the Ambulance Section:

Mrs. Laurence V. Benét
Miss Cameron
Mrs, Francis Carolan
Mrs. Charles Carroll
Mrs. H. H. Harjes
Mrs. George Munroe
Mrs. A. M. Thackara

same date

Nominations of the staff for section of the wounded. Committees are formed, Mr. A. W. Kipling is Chairman of Transportation Comm.

17 August

"A specimen Ford car, transformed by the Ford Company for ambulance duty was submitted to the Medical Board, and after having been duly tested, was found to meet the requirements in every way."

"Mr Dalliba reported that he as Vice-President had received a letter from Mr Harjes resigning as a member of the Board of Governors, and as Treasurer of the Hospital, and severing all connection with the Ambulance Section, and asking that the fact be communicated to the newspapers."

others try to hold him, yet accept resignation

same date

"A specimen Ford car, transformed by the Ford Company for ambulance duty was submitted to the Board, and after having been duly tested, was found to meet the requirements in every way."

Mr. R. Maclay and Mr. H. B. White join Kipling.

19 August

"RESOLVED, That Mr. C. Carroll and Rev. Dr. Watson be, and they hereby are, appointed a Committee of two to communicate with the Archbishop of Paris with a view to obtaining an aumonier, with the Association Evangélique with a view to obtaining a Protestant pastor and with the Church of England with a view to obtaining an English chaplain for the Ambulance."

23 August

Mr. Meslier new superintendent of the Ambulance at the Lycée Pasteur, Neuilly, for room and board.

24 August

"Mr Samuels reported that he had received a visit from Mr. Harjes, and that Mr Harjes had informed him that at the urgent request of certain members of the American Colony he would be willing to withdraw his resignation as a member of the Board of Governors ..."

25 August at 149 Bd. Haussmann

quoting the minutes of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital: "RESOLVED further that Mr. H. Herman Harjes be and he hereby is appointed a Committee of the Board of Governors to deal with the finances of the Ambulance Section."

same date

Watson becomes Chairman of Ambulance Committee, Mr. Monahan wanted out

In August and September, the Ambulance account grows from 5000 Francs to the need for 35.000 Francs (September 9) which Harjes advances. -- for equipment.

Present these days: Dalliba, Cachard, Monahan, Twyeffort, Samuels, Magnin, Gros

29 August at Bd. Haussmann

"Mr. Chas. Carroll reported on the steps taken by him with the Authorities of the Catholic Church, and stated that he hoped to secure Abbé Klein as Aumonier for the Ambulance."

organizing necessary equipment for cars, hospital, Lycée Pasteur ...

4 September, at 149 Bd. Haussmann

"The Chairman stated that he had secured the services of Pasteur d'Aubigné of Neuilly as French Protestant chaplain for the Ambulance."

donation of 5000 francs by Mr. Edwin Gould and Mrs. Finlay J. Shepherd through the Duchesse de Talleyrand

"RESOLVED, That the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris be advised that it is the unanimous judgment and request of the Ambulance Committee that 100,000 francs should be withdrawn from the bank and deposited with the American Ambassador to be held in reserve as a last resource."

RESOLVED, That a General Order be drawn up by Mr. L. V. Benét and issued to the staff prohibiting the carrying of arms by all persons connected with the Ambulance."

present at meetings these days:

Rev. Dr. S. N. Watson, in the Chair
Mr. L. V. Benét
Mr. H. -Cachard
Mr. Chas. Carroll
Mr. F. W. Monahan
Mr. L. V. Twyeffort

7 September, at 149 Bd. Haussmann

"Mr. Benét was requested to see Mrs. French with respect to the Cooper-Hewitt Ambulance."

8 September

Building for the Ford cars

10 September, at Lycée Pasteur

"RESOLVED, That the offer made by Mr. Krabbendam to act as barber at a wage of 150 francs per month without meals for morning service only, be accepted."

14 September, at Lycée Pasteur

"Several members of the organization of the Ambulance Lycée Pasteur having expressed their unwillingness to take their meals at the Ambulance without paying for same, it was decided to apprise them individually that the cost of the lunch is 2 francs and the dinner 3 francs, and that it is left to their discretion to pay in to the funds of the Ambulance for their meals on this basis."

"Two officers of the French army called to explain that French soldiers when discharged form the hospital as cured should be handed over to the Gouvernement de la Place de Paris, and English soldiers to the Commissaire Militaire de la Gare de Lyon who will forward them to ...

The officers in question were unable to give any instructions as to the German soldiers but promised to obtain such instructions at once."

(notice in Herald of Sept 16)

17 September

Watson becomes member of Board.

"RESOLVED, That the function of the Ambulance Committee is to attend to the routine operations of the Section for the Wounded at the Lycée Pasteur at Neuilly, to report to the Board of Governors from time to time the results of such operations, and, when questions arise in connection with such operations that involve either policy or responsibility, that the Committee should submit the same to the Board of its decision."

21 September, at Lycée Pasteur

"RESOLVED, That the Church of all wounded (inserted: British) soldiers be henceforth inserted on the registration cards, said information being obtainable from each soldiers medal."

list of wounded daily to the English Red Cross

"The Chairman was requested to confer with Dr. Du Bouchet as to the question of organizing 2 ambulance trains for work on the battle field, provided the Ford Motor Co., is willing to provide chassis and tyres for 20 ambulance cars."

23 September

"A proposal for a Field Ambulance working with the armies was submitted by Mr. Colby who wished to organize said Ambulance under the auspices of the American Hospital of Paris. The proposal was discussed at some length but the Committee did not see its way to recommend its adoption by the American Hospital.

Dr. Du Bouchet also explained a proposition which is at present in course of execution for equipping and mounting five ambulance cars to work on the battle fields. the necessary funds have already been secured for these five cars and Dr. Du Bouchet expressed the opinion that if the Board of Governors viewed favourable the project of two Ambulance Trains of ten cars each, it might be possible to obtain free of charge from the Ford Motor Co., the chassis and tyres necessary, and that the funds already subscribed for this specific purpose by parties independent of the American hospital could then be diverted to the equipment of the twenty cars. It was resolved that the matter be submitted to the Board of Governors for consideration."

American Chamber of Commerce to help organize funds.

24 September

"RESOLVED, That the proposition for two Ambulance trains of ten cars each, working on the battlefield, made by Dr. Du Bouchet at the meeting of the 23rd September be referred to the Board of Governors with approval."

25 September

"The Committee, after having taken cognizance of the opinion expressed by the Board of Governors with respect to the project submitted to the Ambulance Committee by Dr. Du Bouchet for the creation of two Ambulance trains of ten cars each, affirms its conviction that the Ford cars are sufficiently strong for the purpose for which it is proposed to employ them, and requests the Board of Governors to again consider the advisability of the creation of such Ambulance trains for use on the battlefield.

"RESOLVED, That a cablegram be sent to the Ford Motor Company of Detroit, asking them if they are willing to donate 20 chassis and tyres for same, for use on ambulance cars on the battlefield, provided the American Hospital equip same with bodies and can find the necessary staff and ensure their maintenance."

26 September

"The Chairman reported an interview with the Rev. A. J. Kesting, Scottish Presbyterian Minister, whom he had informed that only chaplains could be considered by the Committee as officially attached to the Ambulance, and had referred to the Rev. Stanley Blunt, Chaplain of the British Embassy Church for further information as to visiting patients."

28 September

"Dr. Du Bouchet pressed for an early answer on the principle of organizing ambulance trains for use on the battlefield, pointing out that the donors of four such cars were anxious for them to be in service."

same date

"The question of an ambulance train to follow the armies was submitted by the Ambulance Committee and discussed. Details as to cars available not being complete, the matter was passed to be taken up at the next meeting." (there moved again to the next meeting.)

29 September

"RESOLVED, That the soldiers of the British Army under treatment at the Ambulance be allowed to sing hymns in Chapel on Sunday afternoons at 3 o'clock."

Dr. Brathwaite, letter of appreciation to

October (no date noted)

"WHEREAS, in accordance with resolutions adopted at a meeting held the 24th day of August 1914, the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris did constitute and appoint an Ambulance Committee composed as follows :

Watson, Benét, Charles Carroll, Monahan, Twyeffort

and did confer upon them certain defined powers to organize and administer a section for the wounded; and

WHEREAS it has now become necessary to clearly define the powers ...

NOW BE IT RESOLVED, That the Ambulance Committee shall have full power to manage, conduct and supervise the special Hospital for the Wounded in the Lycée Pasteur and all organizations of ambulance vehicles and other services which may from time to time be constituted with the general object of rendering surgical and medical aid to the wounded of the present war, but always without restriction as to race, creed or nationality; To lay down and enforce all rules and regulations relating to the organization and management of the Section for the Wounded and to promulgate the same through general and special orders to the staff and employees thereof:

To enforce discipline ...

PROVIDED ALWAYS, That appointments and dismissals of of (sic) members of the surgical and medical staff be made by the Medical Board of the Ambulance and communicated to the Ambulance Committee by the Chief Surgeon.

To receive, acknowledge or decline any and all funds or subscriptions in money or in kind which may to them be tendered, and to accept or decline any loans or donations of property, material or things appropriate in their judgment to the needs of the Ambulance; and further, from time to time, and as they may see fit, to return any and all property, material or things to the apparent owner thereof, PROVIDED ALWAYS, that all donations or subscriptions in money shall be with due diligence turned over to the Treasurer of the American Hospital of Paris to be credited by him to the Ambulance Fund. ..."

"list of governors of the American Hospital in Paris:

Robert Bacon, President
C. S. Phillips, Second Vice-President
John B. Carter, Treasurer
Shaun Kelly, Secretary.

Full list of Governors and date of expiration of their term:
Wm S. Dalliba, American Express Paris 1918
Dr. A. J. Magnin, 121, Bd. Haussmann
Cornelius Tiers, 9, East 80th Street New York
Shaun Kelly, 82 Bd. Haussmann 1919
Robert Bacon, 72 rue de Varenne, Paris 1920
L Huffer, 105, avenue Henri Martin
C. S. Phillips, 35 avenue du Bois de Boulogne
Mrs W. K. Vanderbilt
Mrs H. B. Whitney, 871, Fifth Avenue, NY
Dr J P Hutchinson, American Red Cross, Military Hospital No 1, Neuilly, till the annual meeting 1918
John R. Carter, c/o Morgan Harjes Paris
Dr. E. L. Gros, 23 Av. du Bois de Boulogne
Major James Perkins, American Red Cross, 4, place de la Concorde
Major Alexander Lambert, American Red Cross, 4, place de la Concorde."

3 October

"Letters from Mr. Richard Hunt of Baschurch, Shrewsbury, and Mrs. E. de Froegger, London, offering cars and services were referred to Dr. C. W. Du Bouchet of the Transportation Committee for attention."

Mr. R. Gouget, Driver, gets i.d.

question of superintendence of Ambulance

5 October

"The Chairman stated that Mrs. Thackara and the Comtesse de Breteuil had expressed a desire to embellish the Catholic end of the Chapel, and that he had agreed to their so doing."

6 October

"Dr. Du Bouchet explained that he had furnished for this purpose four cars which had been equipped by independent parties, and one car belonging to this Ambulance. The action of Dr. Du Bouchet in this respect was approved."

9 October

"RESOLVED, That cars 1 to 15 inclusive shall be specifically assigned to Ambulance work (transportation of wounded) and shall be under the direct control of the Surgeon-in-chief or his deputy: and that all other cars shall be under the control of the Ambulance Committee, Mr. Getting being designated as chief in charge of such cars."

Mr. F. Havemeyer, Auto-Conductor
Mr. H. F. Reilly, Attached to field ambulance
Mr. D. Ferguson, Driver

12 October

"Mr. Benét submitted a letter from the Ford Motor Company stating that because of the international nature of their business, they could not give undue preference to organizations in France engaged in relief work in connection with the war, and felt furthermore obliged to observe strict neutrality; that for these reasons they could not accede to the request made to them for the loan of further chassis, to be employed for Ambulance cars.

The Ford Motor Company further advised that they cannot continue to pay the salaries of all the employees who have hitherto been on the ambulance trains of this institution. ... following 16 drivers to be employed on the ambulance cars:

Messrs. Bernard
Farelly,
L'Oiseau,
Echard,
Fowler,
Pollard,
Brown,
Steinherz,
Demaine,
Jesperson,
Christee,
Smith,
Du Bouchet,
Little,
Ferguson,
Du Bouchet ... "

same date

Mr. Cachard submits circular to be distributed for fund-raising for the Ambulance.

13 October

Mr. J. Stierlie, Ambulance driver

14 October

Mr. P. Jordan

17 October

Mr. H. M. English, Driver

17 October, at 4:30 pm

Mr. A. P. Hampson, Driver

Mr. C. Cadot, driver (all: i.d. and arm bands)

21 October

"The Chairman submitted a letter which he proposed sending to Mr. Fred F. Kent, (Vice-Chairman of Bankers' Trust of New York) covering a list of goods which would be appreciated as gifts to the Ambulance, and said letter was approved by the Committee.

The Chairman submitted a letter form Dr. Rice, offering the use of a car for the Ambulance service, ..."

22 October

allowance of Frs. 2.50 per day with meals to Mr. Geo. Loiseau and to Mr. Stierlie, drivers.

Mr. G. L. Berry, attached to Field Ambulance
Mr. Otho W. Budd, driver or stretcher bearer
Mr. Wythe Williams, Stretcher Bearer
Mr. R. Allouard, Driver

1 November

"The Chairman stated that he had been requested by Dr. Watson, Chairman of the Ambulance Committee, to call a special meeting of the Board for the purpose of passing upon the propriety of accepting a large donation, and that he had immediately sent special notices to all the members of the Board in Paris to attend the meeting.

Dr. Watson read two cable messages which had been sent by Mr. Robert Bacon to the American Ambassador in Paris, informing him that an American lady proposed to establish a special hospital for the wounded nearer the front under certain conditions contained in the cablegrams.

Dr. Watson also made known to the Meeting that the Ambulance Committee had passed a Resolution accepting the offer in principle but deciding that in view of the amount of the gift and the magnitude of the work which would be placed upon the directing staff of the Ambulance, the matter should be considered by the Board of Governors." The above is accepted.

6 November

insurance policies of the Ambulance: "It is proposed to add an Avenant excluding from the benefits of this policy all unpaid staff, and a Blanket policy will be prepared, holding the American Hospital free form the results of any accidents to any members of the volunteer staff or to visitors to the Ambulance, up to a maximum of Frs. 25,000 per accident, --- the object of this policy being to keep the Ambulance free in the case of any action in Common Law."

Mr. J. H. McFadden, Driver
Mr. A. Fontaine, Driver
Mr. A. Brandt, Driver
Mr. I. Campbell, Driver
Mr. H. Bargy, Driver, all
Mr. H. Bateman, driver and mechanic

9 November

Donation is from Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney

13 November

"Mr. Twyeffort made an interesting verbal report on his visit to the front where the ambulance cars attached to the Hospital are at present working, and stated that the average number of wounded transported by the team of five cars, is 50 per day.

The military rations served to the staff of the Ambulance cars at the front being deficient in certain particulars, it was RESOLVED, to make an allowance of one Franc per day per man, as from the 11th November, to cover cost of vegetables, coffee, etc."

i.d. for Mrs. Anfré, Medical historian
Mr. F. D. Ogilvie, Driver
Mr. F. d'Alcantara, Attached to Ambulance cars
Count H. de Moy, Driver and stretcher bearer

19 November

letter to Mr. Colby who had offered Ambulance cars: supplies cars and repair and upkeep

20 November

"Mr. Benét submitted a letter addressed to Mr. F. T. Colby by Mr. J. J. Mann, of the Daimler Motor Co., specifying the terms on which two Daimler cars are to be loaned for two months to Mr. Colby,..." which is accepted.

staffs at the front to be given a rest as soon as new cars are in service

"RESOLVED, That the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris be requested, on the unanimous vote of the Committee, to appoint Mr. R. Bacon, as a member of the Ambulance Committee."

Mr. E. C. Cowdin, Driver

21 November

"no insignia of rank appear on the uniforms worn by the men attached to the Ambulance Car Service."

23 November

Robert Bacon becomes member of Ambulance Committee.

"Mr. Harjes read a letter from Mr. Robert Bacon relative to collecting funds in New York for the Ambulance and wherein he asked for certain information and statistics relative to hospital costs and maintenance. ..."

Mr. Herrick to inform the French that the Ambulance is working under Geneva Convention.

24 November

question of insignia referred to Mr. R. Bacon and Dr. C. W. Du Bouchet

Mr. R. Bacon elected into Ambulance Committee by Hospital Governors

Drivers:

Mr. M. Anastassopoulos
Mr. E. C. Haynes
R. C. M. Peirce
C. T. Lowring
G. L Forman
A. M. Joost
J. S. Cochrane
C. Reed Jr.
A. Ball
L. N. Barclay
J. Capman
R. Laurence
R. Breere
D. D. Filley
R. H. Post
N. H. Read
E. H. Townsend
C. C. Johnson
G. G. Hubbard
W. B. Hay, all on Nov. 25

2 December

"Mr Carroll submitted the draft of a telegram which it was proposed to send to Mr. Guy Lowell, advising that the Ambulance could make use of four units of ten cars each for field work, with one Touring car and one Supply car per unit, 5000 dollars being also required for each unit to cover cost of bodies and outfit, 22 men being needed as staff per unit. It was resolved to approve the despatch of this cable.

Mr. Bacon reported on the visit made by Dr. Gros and himself to the French, Belgian and English Military Authorities, and stated that the French and Belgian Army would appreciate the supply of an Operating equipment. He mentioned further the insistence of all Military Authorities upon the maintenance of a high standard of men in the Ambulance Service, as otherwise (sic) the Authorities would prefer cars without men.

Dr. Martin submitted a letter advising the departure from America of four volunteers for the Ambulance Car Service, and of a chassis for a supply car and ten cases of spare parts for repairing Ford cars.

Mr Bacon pointed out the necessity for keeping before the American public the need of funds for the Ambulance, and he was requested to prepare a cable to Mr. Herrick, to reach him on his arrival in America, requesting him to use his influence among his friends to obtain large contributions, furnishing Mr. Herrick at the same time with information on the operations of the Ambulance which will enable him to present a good case."

3 December

offer of a 45 H. P. Automobile made by Mrs. Maitland declined

5 December

Mrs Whitney proposed to the Board of Governors as new member of the Ambulance Committee

7 December

Dr. Du Bouchet, Dr. Martin and Mrs Whitney appointed by Board of Governors as new members of Ambulance Committee

issue of establishing a Medical Hospital discussed

8 December

"Dr. DuBouchet further reported on the requests made by Generals Galliéni and Maudhuy for Ambulance Cars.

Mr. Caroll was requested to cable to Mr Guy Lowell urging the immediate despatch of Ford cars for Field Ambulances, together with men for same, and it was decided to send the same cable to Dr. Auchincloss."

12 December

Myron T. Herrick responds from New York, accepts proposals, supports hospital: "I assume the financial responsibility of this undertaking to the amount of $200,000 and have made the necessary arrangements ..." And: "It is understood that the direction of the Hospital be delegated to Dr. Martin or ... to a Medical Officer appointed by myself or Mr. Bacon, with the approval of the Ambulance Committee."

13 December

F. M. Armington to make sketches of the exterior for US magazine

17 December

"RESOLVED, That Mr Stanton be given the use of the Committee room, and have a stenographer placed at his disposition in the morning of each day, for preparing letters to the newspapers on the Hospital work."

"Mr. Benét communicated a letter received by the Chairman of the American Chamber of Commerce from Mr. Francis Drake, giving details of his work on behalf of the Ambulance Funds in America, and urging the necessity of agreeing to his proposition to name Wards after cities contributing certain sums, ..."

Juilly Hospital

24 December

Wards to be named: "New York," "Boston", the five small wards Nos 63-67 inclusive "Philadelphia", and an additional three small wards "New Haven", "Providence", and "Buffalo" respectively

present at meetings these days:

The Rev. Dr. S. N. Watson (chair)
Mr. L. V. Benét
Mr. Chas. Carroll
Du Bouchet
Dr. Martin

29 December

request to sell lottery tickets in entrance hall denied

Mr Stanton's appointment as PR person cancelled

article in "Automobile & Motor Age"

Drivers usually provide their own uniforms

1915

11 January, 1915

Mrs Robert Woods Bliss offers clothes, drugs and surgical supplies to wounded soldiers for which she offers to provide the necessary automobile cars.

12 January

Universities want to take care of wards, but at present no Ward available to be entrusted to the care of the proposed unit, but that arrangements were being made for certain Universities in turns to take care of certain Wards, which have already been established, one turn being reserved for the Philadelphia University."

"RESOLVED, That rubber boots be added to the regular equipment of the men attached to the Ambulance working with the troops at the front."

14 January

ordering 21 new ambulances, "and also endorsements on the Ambulance in which the third party liability is only guaranteed up to 50,000 frs. instead of 100,000 frs. as is now customary in the policies of the Ambulance."

20 January

$25,000 donated by Mr Frank Munsey of New York to Ambulance.

Dr. Wm. Sturgis Bigelow of Boston cheque for Fcs. 5,000.

23 January

"Mr. Benét reported that Mrs Stromberg had been requested to contribute to the Ambulance funds a donation which will cover the cost of the uniforms just supplied to the men sent to this Ambulance by her. - --Messrs Walle, Rice, Madam, Boyer."

26 January

"Mr Benét summarized verbally the report of Mr Phillip Carroll on his visit to the Ambulance attached to the Belgian Army, and stated that Mr Colby had requested his representative in New York to dissolve the Association formed in connection with his Ambulance Car unit for reasons explained in a letter which stated that Mr Colby had been informed that it was not now necessary for him to return to Paris, and that he had been advised as to the replacement of certain cars of his unit by others which are lighter."

cars to be named after schools, and Mr Benét requested to supply newspapers with material

28 January

volunteers shipped in New York, drivers on the "Tourraine":

Allen Eddy
Roland Stebbins
Robert Burleigh
Homer Culver
Thomas Hamilton

30 January

more volunteers on the "Rochambeau": "... having stated that their uniforms and equipment are to be provided by the Ambulance, it was RESOLVED to cable to Dr. Auchincloss asking if he had made such a promise, and stating that the supplying of these is a heavy burden on our funds."

1 February

"The Distributing Service of the American Ambulance, Paris"

4 February

"In connection with a financial report of the Ambulance, presented by Mr. Yardly, the President said that he had not until recently realized the true relationship between Hospital and Ambulance, a relationship which carried with it responsibilities for the Hospital of which he had had no conception, and it was for this reason he would ask that the situation be reviewed and studied by the Board, in order that there should be no misunderstanding or misconstruing the position of the Board.

... the Board of Governors should see that its affairs are conducted upon business principles such as any of the business men upon the Board would insist upon in the conduct of their respective undertakings.

He further pointed out that after an investigation, he was of the opinion that the present methods were not exactly those which would be adopted by any of the men on the Board ...

As the Ambulance is a branch of the American Hospital, it would be well to confide its administration to an executive Committee appointed by the Board of Governors, such a Committee to be responsible to the Board for the conduct of the affairs of the Ambulance. This Committee would in turn confided the interior direction and details of administration to a paid superintendent, who would keep all financial records to be verified and vouched for by a recognized chartered accountant who would report to the Board of Governors ..."

6 February

"RESOLVED, that the question of severing Mr Colby's connection with the Ambulance be placed in the hands of the Transportation Committee with power to act."

"Dr. DuBouchet submitted a cablegram received from the American Committee in reference to Ambulance cars and staff, together with a copy of the answer sent by the Transportation Committee stating that all men volunteering for work on the Ambulance cars must be prepared to find their own uniform, costing about 50 dollars, and that each car offered should be provided with a fund of 600 dollars to cover expenses for three months, all cars to be fitted with equal back and front wheels."

9 February

Mr Colby manned ambulances with Belgian soldiers, since two months are up wants to be detached from Ambulance; Dr Gros and Mr P. Carroll left to Dunkirk to handle the matter

Next medical unit to arrive from Harvard under Dr. Cushing, then from Philadelphia University under Dr. J. White.

23 February

request for uniforms by Messrs Castex and Schwarz declined

6 March

Rev. Dr. Watson has resigned March 5

10 March

"The Board again considered the advisability of creating a Special Fund for contributions of which the donors are willing that the American Hospital of Paris should have the benefit if the contributions remain unexpected after the close of the Special Hospital and the settlement of all amounts due by the said Institution, an, upon motion duly seconded, it was RESOLVED ...

The Chairman read a letter from Dr. Watson by which he tendered his resignation as Chairman of the Ambulance Committee and as Member of the Board of Governors. ...

The Chairman then informed the Meeting that Mr. Cachard had certain resolutions to present; whereupon Mr Cachard, after lengthy explanations, presented the following Resolutions :

WHEREAS ...

WHEREAS since that time the Special Hospital has assumed important proportions necessitating great outlays of money and the maintenance of a large automobile service; and

WHEREAS the management of such an organization requires more freedom of action and greater powers than the Charter of the American Hospital of Paris allows;

WHEREAS the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris ...; but whereas it can no longer assume the responsibilities and incur the risks which the present situation carries with it; and

WHEREAS it has now become expedient to entrust and transfer to an organization duly qualified and acceptable to the Board of Governors of the American Hospital the management of the Special Hospital at the Lycée Pasteur and all rights and property acquired in connection with the same;

NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED THAT within one month from the date hereof the American Hospital of Paris shall transfer to a properly constituted and duly qualified organization, acceptable to the Board of Governors of said Hospital, the Concession which it holds from the French Government to maintain a Hospital for the wounded in the Lycée Pasteur, with all fixtures, furniture, implements, surgical and other instruments, supplies, automobiles, insurance policies and other articles of personal property, together with the funds remaining in the hands of its Treasurer, upon terms and conditions to be hereafter determined.

In casting their votes, Doctors Gros and Magnin declared that they only voted in favor of the Resolutions if it was understood that all members present would serve on the Board of the new corporation to be organized for managing the Ambulance Hospital."

PROPOSED BY-LAWS OF THE AMERICAN HOSPITAL - HÔPITAL BÉNÉVOLE 2 BIS

March 10, 1915 letter by A. J. Magnin: "After very careful consideration, I am convinced that the separation of our Hospital from the Ambulance will do harm to both institutions." to Hoff.

18 March

"RESOLVED, That the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris be requested to appoint a. W. K. Vanderbilt as a member of the Ambulance Committee."

25 March

Harjes resigns as Governor and Treasurer

30 March

Captain Frank Mason new on the Ambulance Committee, and in the chair at this meeting

Mrs. Vanderbilt to be informed via cable that the Board of Governors of the American Hospital has appointed her as member of the Ambulance Committee

31 March

Mr. Henry Cachard's resignation accepted. Harjes's also.

3 April

"Mr. Benét submitted several letters form the American Committee which are being dealt with by the Transportation Department, notably one in reference to an Ambulance Car for which the Wellesley College has subscribed 800 dollars, and another in reference to two, and possibly six Ambulance cars for which Dartmouth College proposes to furnish the necessary funds, and which said College wishes to man from among its own students. The Committee approved the draft of a telegram submitted by the Transportation Department, accepting the offer of the Dartmouth College and requesting that the chassis for the proposed Ambulances be sent one month before the men sail."

8 April

"RESOLVED, That the tickets offered by Places of Amusements for weekday performances be declined, and that tickets for Sunday be limited to 30, with a permissible maximum of 40, Mr La Chaise to be advised accordingly."

13 April

"RESOLVED, That no request shall be made for the militarization of any car except for such as are employed in connection with the transportation of the wounded.

A letter was received from the Anglo-American Ambulance, London, asking for information on the work of the Field Ambulance Service, and it was resolved to authorize the furnishing of such information."

Identity cards, esp their return by the bearer is a much discussed topic in the meetings.

15 April

"RESOLVED, That in view of the difficulties which have arisen with the War Department in consequence of the misconduct of a responsible Agent of the Distributing Service, and which have resulted in the canceling of all military passes issued to the cars of this Hospital for the transportation of the wounded, Mr. Benét be requested to confer with Mr. Bliss and take the necessary steps in the circumstances."

17 April

All boy scouts to bear a number henceforth.

"RESOLVED further, That Mr Carroll be requested to prepare a list of goods, with quantities, which can serve to indicate what can be advantageously donated to the Ambulance."

"Mr. Benét submitted a letter from Mrs. Mary Borden Turner asking the assistance of the Ambulance in organizing a movable Hospital to be attached to the 8th French Army, and requesting two Nurses, Medical supplies and some Ambulance cars. Dr DuBouchet was requested to take up the matter of nurses and supplies, and it was RESOLVED to advise Mrs Borden Turner in respect to the Ambulance cars that in the opinion of the Committee not less than a section would be needed, but that this Institution is not in a position to furnish same."

20 April

"R.. that a list be prepared of all persons attached to the Ambulance staff, and that each be requested to sign as to whether he or she is willing to abstain from drinking wine at meals taken at the Ambulance."

"The Chairman submitted a letter from Mrs. Bliss advising the severance of the connection between the Ambulance and the Distributing Service, and Mr. Benét was requested to complete the final arrangements in the matter."

22 April

American Committee reports: five drivers sailed, three engaged; Committee is then asked for 25 additional drivers.

"Mr Benét submitted a letter received from the War Department suggesting the re-organization of the present Field Ambulance Car Service on a new basis, each section comprising 20 Ambulance Cars, two Staff cars, one repair car and one light dray, a French Officer to be attached to each section, the men belonging to this Institution to be given rations and pay as in the French Army, the Officer in charge to have the rank of Captain and each section to have two Lieutenants. Mr Benét explained that this system of re-organization would necessitate reinforcing the sections now at the Front, and that the 25 additional men requested by cable from the American Committee, in addition to those already here and those on the way, would be sufficient to man three sections in the field, and the ten cars it is proposed to attach to the Fahnestock Field Hospital. Mr Benét submitted the draft of an agreement proposed to be executed between the Military Authorities and this Institution, and it was RESOLVED to authorize the Transportation Committee to execute this document with a few minor changes of which Mr Benét took note."

"The Chairman submitted draft of a letter to be addressed to Mrs Bliss in reference to the severance of the connection between the Ambulance Committee and the Distributing Service, and it was RESOLVED to approve said letter."

April 24

draft of letter to war dept. by Benét approved.


.

II. From the Samuel N. Watson Collection at
the Hoover Institute of Stanford University

Watson, Samuel Newell, 1861-1942.
Papers, 1914-1920.
1 ms. box, 12 scrapbooks, 1 package.
[ID: CSUZXX033-A]
Rector, American Church of the Trinity, Paris, France, 1912-1918.
Summary: Correspondence, clippings, pamphlets, posters, photographs, and postcards, relating to relief work in France during World War I, and to the Allied powers during the war.
in English and French.

Transcribed from the above collection:


Office of the Ambulance Committee
August 29th 1914

GENERAL ORDER No. 1

In order to assure the orderly and efficient management of the American Ambulance, and in order to clearly define the responsibilities and the authority of all heads of departments, the following general order is published for the information of all concerned:

1. The Board of Governors of the American Hospital having constituted the Ambulance Committee in full control of the management of the American Ambulance, all final authority and responsibility is vested in this Committee.

2. Composition of Committee:

Hon. Chairman, Mr. W. S. Dalliba
........Chairman, Rev. Dr. S.N. Watson
........................Mr. L. V. Benét
........................Mr. Chas. Carroll
........................Mr. F. W. Monahan
........................Mr. L. V. Twyeffort

3. When the Ambulance Committee is not actually in session, its executive powers are vested in the Chairman, Rev. Dr. S. N. Watson, and by him delegated to the Officer of the Day who will be in full executive control of the Ambulance during his tour of duty. The four members of the Committee will serve in regular rotation as Officer of the Day for periods of 24 hours. In case of absence of the Chairman and of the Officer of the Day, matters of importance should be referred to them by telephone.

4. CHIEF SURGEON. The Surgeon in Chief shall have authority and control over the Medical Staff, the House Surgeon, the Chief Nurse, the Chief Operating Nurse and the Automobile Ambulance Service. He shall have complete charge of all that relates to the transportation and care of the wounded, and of the hygiene of the Ambulance. He shall transmit to the disbursing Secretary all statistical data relating to the wounded and to the Ambulance Service, and shall report from time to time to the Ambulance Committee on the general conduct and efficiency of the Ambulance. He shall, as occasion may require, submit to the Ambulance Committee through the Officer of the Day requisitions for supplies required in his department., together when possible with estimates of cost of same. He shall, with the approval of the Committee, prepare and issue all cartes d'identité, and engage and discharge all volunteer or paid employés in his department.

5. CHIEF NURSE. The Chief Nurse shall have under her control all nurses (with the exception of the Chief Operating Nurse), assistant nurses whether volunteer or paid, orderlies and the Diet Kitchen. She shall be responsible to the Surgeon in Chief for the discipline and efficiency of her department, and to him shall submit all requisitions for supplies required in same.

6. CHIEF OPERATING NURSE. The Chief Operating Nurse shall be under the direct authority and control of the Surgeon in Chief. She shall be the custodian of all dressings and bandages of which she shall keep a daily inventory. She shall submit to the Surgeon in Chief all requisitions for supplies required in her department.

7. SUPERINTENDENT. The Superintendent shall have full authority and control over the Housekeeper, the Engineer and the Storekeeper. He shall be responsible for the economical and efficient management of the supply, preparation and issue of all food, waters, wines, etc., for the subsistence of patients and of such of the staff as are authorized to receive subsistence. He shall issue to the Chief Nurse upon requisitions approved by the Surgeon in Chief, such supplies as may be required by the Diet Kitchen. He shall be responsible for the Storekeeper and for the stores under his control, and shall keep a daily inventory of same. He shall be responsible for the discipline and efficiency of all servants, and with the approval of the Ambulance Committee shall engage all servants and fix their salaries; he shall have full authority to discharge all employés under his control. He shall report to the Ambulance Committee from time to time, and always when required, upon the conduct, efficiency and needs of his department. He shall be responsible for the general maintenance and cleaning of the Ambulance, and for the disposal of all refuse. He shall be responsible for the general maintenance and cleaning of the Ambulance, and for the disposal of all refuse. He shall be responsible for the operation of the heating apparatus and shall maintain the wards at the temperature which may from time to time be designated by the Officer of the Day. He shall submit to the Ambulance Committee through the Officer of the Day all requisitions with estimated cost for additions to equipment, repairs and for supplies to be kept in stock. He shall each morning at not later than 10 o'clock submit to the Officer a detailed and certified account of all market supplies and groceries purchased in the open market during the preceding twenty-four hours.

8. DISBURSING SECRETARY. The Disbursing Secretary shall have authority and control over the stenographers, clerical force and bookkeepers. He shall, with the approval of the Ambulance Committee engage all such employés whether voluntary or paid and shall have full authority to discharge. He shall control and manage the telephone service both interior and exterior, and shall be responsible for its efficiency. He shall keep fair and full record of all patients received and discharged, and of their personal effects. He shall prepare and tabulate all medical and other statistics. He shall have custody of all funds which may from time to time be deposited with him by the Ambulance Committee, and shall disburse same only in payment of requisitions on bills approved by the Committee, or as may relate to payments not exceeding 100 francs upon signed authority of the Officer of the Day. He shall advance to the Superintendent for purchase of market supplies such daily amounts as may from time to time be authorized in writing by the Ambulance Committee, and shall keep a fair and complete account of all receipts and disbursements. He shall inform the Officer of the Day in writing of all contributions received by him either in money or in kind, and he shall prepare and maintain a complete inventory of all property, equipment and supplies other than those specified as controlled by the Superintendent and the Chief Operating Nurse. He shall render to the Ambulance Committee through the Officer of the Day on each Monday morning before 10 a.m. a detailed statement of receipts and disbursements for the preceding week. He shall from time to time, and as required, report to the Ambulance Committee on the conduct and efficiency of his department.

By order of

THE AMBULANCE COMMITTEE.

Chairman


Coudert Brothers.........................................NEW-YORK, 2 Rector Street
Henry Cachard
Henry Peartree
Charles B. Samuels......................................PARIS, October 24, 1914
J.B. Robinson................................35, Boulevard Haussmann
Counsellors at Law
---------------
Telegraphic Address
TREDUOC-PARIS

 

Reverend Dr. Samuel N. WATSON
..................American Church
..........................23 Avenue de l'Alma
....................................PARIS

My dear Dr. Watson,--

You ask me for a line defining the powers of the Ambulance Committee.

The answer in general is simple: they are such as the Board of Governors has given or may hereafter give. There have been two resolutions of the Board on the subject. The first charged the Committee with the "conduct" of the Section for Wounded subject to the Board's direction; the other declared that the committee is the Executive in that work. Both resolutions are identical in meaning, and that meaning is that the Committee can and should do nothing except as first authorized by the Board.

At the outset, the Board accepted the use of the Lycée Pasteur and ten automobiles from the Ford Company. These items represented the plant in connection with which the Committee was to serve and the moneys expressly appropriated by the Board, as far as I can recall, have never been for any other purpose than the development and maintenance of the service in that building and with those cars and it is my view that if the Committee has done or should seek to do anything else, it has been, and will be, beyond its scope. And even in these things, since the Board and every member thereof are bound as the trustees of the corporation and of the individuals whose money has been contributed to the present work to supervise and direct all that is done, the spirit of comity which should exist between the Committee and the Board makes it incumbent upon the Committee to call upon the Board for action in matters of importance that might be found to come within the sphere or operation and maintenance. No one can or will question the personal fitness of any member of the Committee to deal with every question that might arise. The objection to unlimited Committee action is that it is the duty of the larger body, viz: the Board, to deal with the same questions, and this is the reason why the Committee should endeavour to leave for Board action even administrative questions if they are important and all matters which do not relate to the limited service entrusted to the Committee.

It is impossible to catalogue the things that the Committee is justified in doing, or should only partly do, or should not do at all. I only venture therefore to suggest a few of the things that are beyond the power of the Committee as it has been so far constituted.

(1) It has no right to commit the corporation to any liability. This means moral, as well as legal, liability, and embraces every proposition sounding in futurity.

(2) It may not enlarge the service, either by increasing accommodations within the building or by extending it outside---for instance, in the establishment of a field service, or the donation of the equipment, or the use thereof, to or for the benefit of third parties.

(3) Donations of personal service, or of materials, or the use thereof should not be accepted by the Committee except, as the same might tend to advance the service created by the Board.

(4) The Committee may not control the medical or surgical service, but it is its duty to indicate to the Board what is needful in respect of non-medical personnel and provide the same when authorized by the Board. The importance of consulting the Board in this connection is evident from the fact that one of the greatest sources of expense is in connection with the help, and one of the prime duties of the Board is to guard expenditure.

(5) The Committee may not appoint physicians.

(6) The Committee should not hold itself out as an independent body, for it is simply the servant of the corporation and acting wholly by its authority and in its behalf.

(7) The Committee should not deal with questions involving policy.

(8) It should not make application (as seems to have been done to the Ford Company for additional cars) to any one for contributions useful only for a work not authorized by the Board.

(9) The Committee should not act upon a matter beyond its record power, even though a certain number of Board members, believed to a majority of a probably attendance, express their approval outside of a Board meeting. The only means for the legitimate expression of a Board decision is a vote taken at a regularly constituted meeting.

(10) The taking out of insurance, the ascertainment of amounts, and the signing of policies and insurance contracts, are beyond the Committee's power.

(11) The Committee has no right to arrange (as I understand it has done) for the advance of funds for finishing this or that feature of the building upon the promise of a contractor to refund after the hospital service is ended, when the building is paid for by the municipality, for this is a contract, and the Committee may not make contracts..

(12) The signing of contracts by the Committee, or any Member thereof, in the name of the corporation, or in the name of the Committee, or any member thereof on behalf of the Corporation is wholly unauthorized.

The real business and function of the Committee, as far as I can judge, are being performed from day to day by the so-called "Officer of the day", and the occasion for, and benefit of, a committee of five are that one man's judgment will be fortified by the counsel of the others. And, furthermore, the implication of the appointment of a Chairman of the committee was that he would be the responsible representative of the Board at the Section for the Wounded, with the privilege of calling upon the other members for such views and assistance as he might find necessary.

While it is plain that there are many things that the Committee has no power to do, there are two things that it ought to do, viz: to keep the Board fully informed as to all matters and to call upon the Board for action whenever occasion requires. In this way every one who is responsible for the Hospital and its credit will have a chance to perform his duty; in any other way, three Board Members and two non-Members take to themselves the discharge of duties and responsibilities that rest upon eighteen men, of whom nine are now in the City, ready, willing and able to discharge their obligations as Governors. The mere statement of this proposition shows how just and important it is that the Committee confine itself exclusively to those things expressly authorized by the Board and in turn apply to the Board when express authority is lacking. For it seems to me that the three Board Members of the Committee could participate at Board meetings in the consideration of questions with the same ease as at Committee meetings.

I grant that it may be said that these limitations reduce the Committee to a very minor position. IN this I concur, now that the work of installation is complete; and it leads to the conclusion that the proper instrumentality from now on is a single, competent superintendent --for in its ultimate analysis that is just what the Committee now is. It simply occupies the place of a superintendent who could be employed, I am told, at from $3.000 to $3.500 a year.

But if the Committee wants to take the place of such a man, well and good; but I think that in doing so it should accept its true relation to the Board, and the true relation of the Board to it and the corporation and the donors of the funds in hand, and strive to leave to the Board the things for which the Board is responsible and not try to do more than it has been the policy of the Board to commit to it.

To judge from a remark made to me a day or so since, by a member of the Committee that "it is a pity that the American Hospital ever had anything to do with the Ambulance" there has already arisen a conflict of ideas as to just what the policy in respect of the Ambulance should be. It is quite true that this same gentleman and many others entertaining the same views would have had practically no restriction upon their freedom of action if they, and not the American Hospital, had been given charge of the work. But the American Hospital was given charge of it, and its action is hedged around not only with those disabilities incident to its corporate existence, but a moral obligation to refrain from any steps or any enterprise not of an ultra conservative character. At the time the work was begun, I was personally told that the latter consideration was one of the reasons controlling certain influential gentlemen interested in starting this work, in preferring the American Hospital to a group of individuals.

The work no matter how meritorious it is, is ultra vires so far as the American Hospital is concerned, but I personally urged its undertaking upon the ground that the calls of humanity are superior to the letter of the Charter. But the sole justification of this action is necessity--- and wherever there is no necessity for this American Corporation to intervene, it is clearly wrong for it to do so. There is much difference between sharing with the English and French their work among the wounded and suffering, and relieving the wounded and suffering when they otherwise be without help. The former suggests a situation making American intervention altogether uncalled for and marking a very definite boundary to our corporate activities, if not making our appeal for funds an imposition upon the charitable sentiments of the American people. I, personally, have long questioned the fitness of the great establishment at Neuilly in face of the currently reported fact that in Paris the accommodations for wounded far exceed the demand. Nothing but abject necessity justifies the existence of this establishment, and this test (necessity) should control every activity, not only of the Committee but of the Board itself. With so much distress and suffering in the invaded regions, and among the wounded on the fields of battle, I gravely doubt that the Ambulance at Neuilly produces the full measure of help and amelioration that the cost thereof would produce if more directly applied; and if my premise be correct, we actually do harm by diverting gifts of charity from places of greater needs. These, of course, are my individual views, but they at least further indicate that many questions, as to which the Committee might be biased by too close association with its immediate work and consequent desire to see it develop greatly, should be dealt with by the Board at large.

Yours truly,

(signed)
Charles B. Samuels

CBS/BR


[copy]

149, Boulevard Haussmann
PARIS
22 February, 1915

Mr. John J. Hoff
67, Bd. Haussmann
PARIS

Dear Sir,

In accordance with the request made to me at the meeting of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital held 11th February, I have made up a report of the operations of the Ambulance from the commencement to date. I have confined myself to the simple story of the development of each section, without much embellishment, as I understand that a sober matter-of-fact statement is needed with no journalistic turns.

It is assumed that the report will cover the life of the Ambulance up to the close of February, that is, six months' active work. A number of spaces have therefore been left in blank, so that the correct figures can be filled in, although if the report is adopted, the printing could be put in hand without much delay, and the figures inserted after composition, just before starting to print.

There may be some diffidence about publishing at this stage a definite Balance Sheet, and in any case this would have to be made up and certified by a Chartered Accountant, so that I have not made any suggestion as to this feature of the report. If objection is made to this, it would still seem that some explanation is due to the public of the manner in which the funds have been expended, and the case might be met by a summary as shown on sheet 24a, which I have left incomplete, not knowing what reference it is desired to make of the Balance in the hands of the Treasurer, need for further funds, etc.

Sheet 24a would also have to bear some allusion to the Transportation Fund, unless it is deemed that enough has been said in the section referring to the Field Ambulance.

No mention has been made of the Juilly Hospital, but if desired a paragraph could be added concerning same.

Throughout the whole report all names have been carefully avoided, as it is my understanding that complete anonymity is desired.

The report is submitted as a suggestion, subject to correction and change, and if it is decided to publish any such document, I shall be pleased to put it into proper shape and see it through the printer's hands.

The text would make a booklet of 16 pages, if executed in the style of the enclosed sheet, and without illustrations, but it would be preferable to make a booklet of 20 pages, with a few illustrations of the Ambulance: exterior view, inside of ward, bandage room, terrace, ambulance car---say 8 or 10 illustrations in all. There need be no special cover, as an attractive front page could be made up with a large illustration, head lines and effective border.

I am ending a copy of the text and also of this letter to Dr. Watson, as Chairman of the Ambulance Committee, and if you should wish to see me later on any points, I am entirely at your disposition,

Yours very truly
[initialed HY]


SEVEN MONTHS

have now elapsed since the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris, on the outbreak of hostilities in Europe, decided to establish an Ambulance or Military Hospital for rendering aid to the Wounded. During nearly six months the Ambulance has been in active operation, and it is believed that the present is an opportune moment for submitting to the public a summary of the work accomplished during this period, and which is still being continued, together with a statement of the disposition which has been made of the funds so generously contributed for the equipment and maintenance of the Hospital at the Lycée Pasteur.

THE DIRECTING BODY

The organization and control of this special Hospital were placed in the hands of a small Committee, known as the Ambulance Committee, composed of certain of the members of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris and a few other American citizens, all of whom having been long resident in France had the necessary experience for the proper handling of the many problems inseparable from an undertaking of this kind.

PRELIMINARIES

The month of August 1914 was largely taken up by preliminary steps, such as securing a suitable building, organizing the medical, nursing, housekeeping, automobile and clerical staffs, obtaining the requisite furniture, and laying in a stock of materials of all kinds. It was not until early in September that everything was in readiness to receive the wounded, and on the 6th September, while the Battle of the Marne was being fought within a few miles of Paris, this special care attached to the Ambulance brought in from the nearby battlefield the first lot of wounded soldiers.

THE AMBULANCE BUILDINGS

The magnificent new premises of the Lycée Pasteur at Neuilly-sur-Seine, which were promptly placed by the French Government at the disposition of the American Hospital of Paris for the purpose of a temporary hospital, were within a few months of completion when war was declared, and would have been opened as a college in October.

To make the buildings habitable and suitable for a hospital there still remained a considerable amount of interior work, such as the lighting and heating installations, glazing, carpentering and sanitary work, all of which had to be completed by the Ambulance Committee with the funds contributed for the Ambulance.

In addition to this structural work, it was found necessary to provide a great number of cupboards, wardrobes, tables, etc. as the building when taken over was absolutely without furniture of any kind. Most of this furniture had to be made specially, as little could be found in stock which would adequately meet the requirements at a reasonable price.

Completing the unfinished hospital buildings, and fitting up the Wards and various departments for taking care of a number of patients gradually increased from 200 to over 400, absorbed a total sum of Frs. _____ as shown on the Balance Sheet.

A part of this sum will naturally be recoverable at the close of operations, but on the other hand, a large amount will be needed to defray the cost of putting the buildings into proper condition for handing back to the French Government, as necessarily a certain amount of depreciation takes place when premises are used so constantly and actively as is the case with the Ambulance of the Lycée Pasteur.

It should be added that many of the beds, and also large quantities of blankets, linen, etc. were generously given by some friends of the Ambulance, otherwise the amount mentioned above as the cost of the equipment would have been considerably greater.

ORGANIZING THE STAFF.

A very gratifying response was received to the appeal made in August 1914 for voluntary service.

The medical and surgical staff of the American Hospital, all insufficient for the important undertaking projected, was promptly supplemented by professional assistance generously offered by Doctors, Surgeons and Specialists in Paris at the time, and since then many volunteers have come from America to help for varying periods, and others are scheduled to arrive at future dates.

Ample and sufficient staffs of Trained and Auxiliary Nurses, Orderlies, Ambulance Car conductors and Stretcher bearers were quickly formed, and other necessary services organized. During the months which have elapsed, some of the first volunteers have been compelled for family or business reasons to resign their duties at the Ambulance, many to return to America, and some to resume their ordinary avocations in Paris, but their places have been filled up to the present by others, just as enthusiastic and earnest, and just as willing to devote themselves to the wounded who fill the many wards.

It is gratifying to be able to say that a goodly percentage of the original staff, after six months of constant and arduous work, is still engaged at the Ambulance, willingly and cheerfully giving time and services in the endeavor to alleviate the sufferings of those wounded in the War.

AN APPRECIATION

Nothing has been more encouraging and stimulating than the splendid enthusiasm and goodwill with which so many men and women, drawn from all spheres, and from many lands besides America, have contributed their quota of work--- not always of the most agreeable or attractive kind--- and here strengthened the hands of the Committee in its endeavor to maintain the Ambulance at a high pitch of efficiency and usefulness.

If on no other occasion, than now, the Board of Governors of the American Hospital and the Ambulance Committee wish to express their keen appreciation of the devotion and self-sacrifice which has been so constantly manifested by the members of the staff in all the various departments during the whole of the past six months.

PAID HELP

In addition to the staff engaged on the Hospital service proper, an important staff of workmen has had to be maintained until quite recently in structural and cleansing work on the Wards and rooms which have been added month by month since September 1914, when the Ambulance was organized with 200 beds available for patients. At the present time more than 400 wounded soldiers can be accommodated, in addition to which all the trained nursing staff is housed, and also a certain number of orderlies and men attached to the Ambulance cars, many of whom are required for night duty.

On account of the diffused nature of the buildings, which have numerous and long corridors and many staircases, no lifts being installed, a number of women at present_____, mostly wives of men serving at the front, have been engaged and are paid for their services, these women being employed in cleaning floors and windows, and in preparing and serving meals for the patients and for the nursing, orderly and general staffs.

Neuilly being in the main a residential suburb of Paris, and no restaurants existing near the Ambulance, it was necessary from the start, in order to ensure economical working, to avoid waste of both time and money for the workers, and to make voluntary service reasonably possible, to provide the meals for the staff as well as for the patients.

THE KITCHEN DEPARTMENT

became therefore of great importance, as it was recognized that any economy realized in this direction would have a great influence upon the duration of the funds subscribed, besides contributing in a marked degree to the general efficiency of the institution.

The Ambulance Committee were fortunate in securing at the outset an expert and thoroughly capable kitchen management, and with a well-organized staff, modern equipment, and prudent purchasing of provisions in large quantities, it has been possible to furnish excellent meals in the Ambulance at the low average cost during the six months of Frs._____ (_____cents) for a luncheon or dinner, a cost which compares favorably with that obtained in any hospital of like importance, supplying meals of similar quality. This figure includes cost of provisions, fuel, wages of kitchen staff and service, and all sundry expenses connected with the Kitchen Department.

The number of meals served per day during the past three months, a period during which the hospital has been maintaining an almost uniform daily number of patients, is about 1600, this figure comprising the patients, nursing, orderly, clerical, cleaning, transportation and general staff, besides a number of men attached to the special Field Ambulance Department, who return to Neuilly periodically for change and rest, or who are being equipped and prepared as new volunteers for service on the cars engaged in conveying the wounded from behind the fighting line to the base hospitals and trains.

It will therefore be readily understood that although many of the staff pay for their meals, the expenses incidental to the feeding of so many persons occupy a prominent position on the Balance Sheet as they do to a total of Frs. or $_____.

The kitchen and refectory are situated in the basement in spacious quarters, such as are essential for the proper conduct of such a department. It is interesting to note that since the commencement _____lbs of comestibles of various kinds have passed through the Kitchen Section, the total number of meals served being _____.

In addition to the General Kitchen a special Diet Kitchen is maintained, under the control of the Nursing Staff, for the preparation of meals required by patients whose dietary is limited and prescribed by the medical staff.

THE MEDICAL STAFF

right from the commencement has been both sufficient and efficient, and, as was to be expected, has rendered splendid service in caring for the many difficult cases received at the Ambulance.

In deference to the principle of anonymity prescribed from the foundation in respect to the workers in the Ambulance--- an anonymity which enterprising newspaper correspondents have not always been so willing to respect as would have been desired---nothing but the most general reference can be made to the work done so ceaselessly and so carefully by this part of the staff, which now consists of Surgeons, Doctors, Dental Surgeons, besides specialists for Ear and Throat troubles, Eye wounds, Orthopedy, Massage, Pathology and Radiology, and also a Pharmacist.

Many of the original staff, who commenced duty in September, still continue to devote their time and services tot he work of the Ambulance. They have been supplemented at later date by colleagues from America, who have stayed for varying periods contributing their share of skill and energy towards remedying the ravages caused by the war. The latest arrivals are complete medical units constituted and sent over to France by the medical schools of the leading American Universities. A certain number of wards and patients are confided to these units, who are left free to employ their special methods in treating the wounded, incidentally affording opportunities to interested French doctors for observing American practice.

It is almost superfluous to speak of the devotion manifested by a body of men for whom the sacrifice of self in the interests of humanity has come to be regarded as natural. It is certain however that in the days of stress, when car after car of wounded men rolled up to the Ambulance entrance, the self-forgetfulness of the medical staff was more than ordinarily apparent, especially when the operations had to be continued until far into the night, in order to diminish rapidly and effectively the sufferings of the wounded and give them a fair chance of recovering.

This is scarcely the time or place to enter into details of the surgical and medical work which has been carried out. A volume of interesting episodes could be recounted, all more or less akin to the hospital stories with which the public is by this time quite familiar from newspaper reports. Carefully compiled, exact and scientific records are however being maintained in every department of the Ambulance, under the direction of the Medical Board, and in the Pathological Laboratory interesting exhibits are being formed, which, it is hoped, in conjunction with technical observations made by the Doctors and Surgeons, will prove of considerable utility long after the present war is ended, to many others than those who are now acquiring valuable experience first hand.

NUMBER OF CASES TREATED.

Up to the 28th February, 1915, _____ cases have been admitted into the Ambulance, of which _____ have been discharged as cured or convalescent, _____ have died, and _____still remain under treatment.

Of the _____ cases treated _____ came from the French troops, _____from the English troops and _____were wounded German prisoners.

The wounded received from the French army comprised besides Frenchmen a large number of Algerian and Senegalese soldiers, who were not among the least interesting cases.

The first entries numbering 4 were made on 6th September, and by the 17th September the number had reached 209, leaping suddenly to this figure from 146 on the 16th September and 91 on the 15th. Those days of the 16th and 17th September are memorable in the history of the Ambulance for the strain placed upon all the staff by the arrival of so many badly wounded men within a few hours.

During the second half of September and the first half of October the average daily number of patients was 238, falling then until the end of October to an average of 189, when the number again began to rise, so that in November the average per day was 196, passing in December to 356, and in January and February of this year to _____, the highest point during the whole period being reached on the _____, when _____ patients were under treatment.

THE NURSING STAFF

is composed at present of _____ Trained Nurses and _____ Auxiliaries, besides _____ Auxiliaries employed in the preparation of Bandages and Dressings, of which a daily average total of _____ is made and used. The Bandage Room is a special and important feature of the Ambulance, as it enables a marked economy to be effected, the cost at the Lycée Pasteur being very much lower than the prices current outside.

With the exception of 2 wards containing each 35 beds, all the wards in the Ambulance contain 8 or 9 beds, the total number of wards being 47, distributed over three floors of the building.

The upper floors of the central front building have been furnished and fitted up as Nurses' Dormitories and living quarters. No attempt has been made however to do more than supply what is absolutely essential in the way of furniture and comforts, and no unnecessary expense has been indulged in.

The work accomplished by the Nursing Staff has been from the first exceptionally arduous, often taxing their energies to the utmost, and although the organization is now complete, and every nurse thoroughly acquainted with her work and duties, a well-deserved tribute must be paid to the spirit of self-forgetfulness and self-sacrifice, which must perforce have animated all this part of the staff, to enable them to continue their duties month after month under conditions which however favorable as far as it lies in the power of the Committee to make them so in a temporary hospital, are still far from equal to those obtaining in the permanent hospitals of America.

THE LINEN ROOM

is an important adjunct to the Nursing Department, as through it there pass every week some _____ pieces of linen of all the kinds used in the Ambulance.

This necessitates a staff of _____women for examining, checking in and out, storing, repairing, etc.

Practically the whole of the laundry work for the Ambulance is executed in the special Laundry attached to the American Hospital, this department having been enlarged and the staff augmented for this purpose. In this way an appreciable economy has already been effected, the costs at the Hospital Laundry with its modern facilities being very much less than the price which would have to be paid to outside laundries.

CARE OF SOLDIERS' EFFECTS.

As the wounded arrive at the Ambulance their clothes are carefully examined, all valuables taken from them being deposited in a safe, and the clothes are then disinfected and later repaired before being placed in store. All arms which may be brought into the Ambulance are carefully stored until they can be fetched away by the proper military authorities.

ORDERLIES AND CARE OF VISITORS.

The Ambulance right from its earliest days acquired somewhat of a reputation for its general efficiency and for the careful and systematic way in which the various departments were conducted. Every effort, needless to say, has been made to merit, maintain and enhance this reputation, and much careful thought is constantly being given by the heads to the perfection of minor details, with a view of arriving at greater efficiency and economy of operation.

Attracted partly by this reputation, partly by the magnitude of the enterprise, and also by the interesting nature of the cases treated in a special hospital of this kind---the wounded in the war naturally holding a special place in the hearts of the people---a large number of visitors have passed through the doors of the Ambulance during these first six months, many of them bearing names of worldwide celebrity.

These numerous general visitors, added to the many relatives and friends calling to see patients, have made it necessary to maintain regularly an important staff of orderlies, at present numbering _____, who in addition to guiding visitors over the hospital, are occupied in receiving and bathing patients, conveying them from he wards to the Operating Rooms, or changing their wards, and carrying out much heavy work which could not be reasonably demanded from the nurses.

Most of the orderlies are volunteers, many of them in ordinary life occupying important positions in the artistic, professional and commercial world, but willing all to do what lies in their power to assuage the sufferings of those who have done their part in the war. They too deserve their mead of praise for the kindly, cheerful and sympathetic manner in which they have fulfilled a task always fatiguing, and often making large demands on their tact and forbearance.

THE CLERICAL, STATISTICAL AND PURCHASING STAFF

has from the first played an important part in the work of organizing and equipping the Ambulance. The initial difficulties of the various departments were the greater because of an entire lack of experience in hospital needs and methods. The problems present were however one by one satisfactorily and expeditiously resolved, and at the present time the office staff of persons keeps the clerical machinery running smoothly, compiling at the same time many valuable statistics, some of which are incorporated in the present report, others serving the purposes of the military and sanitary authorities.

THE SPIRITUAL NEEDS

of the patients formed one of the early preoccupations of the Ambulance Committee, and even before the building was ready for use, arrangements were made for a Roman Catholic priest to take up his residence at the Ambulance, and for visiting chaplains to occupy themselves with the English Catholic and with the French and English Protestant patients.

A spacious Lecture Hall was set aside for religious services, to be used at certain hours and on appointed days by the various chaplains. Altars were set up for both Catholic and Protestant services, and an organ and piano were kindly furnished by generous friends, so that it has been possible from the first days of the establishment of the Ambulance to hold bright, cheery helpful services which have been much appreciated.

Every facility has also been afforded the chaplains for visiting and talking with the wounded.

Few sights have been more impressive than the military funerals which have taken place from the Ambulance, especially on those occasions when the remains of several men were taken away together to their last resting place in the Neuilly Cemetery, where a special section was generously voted by the Neuilly Municipality for the interment of the men who died at the Ambulance.

AMUSEMENTS.

During the past two months it has also been possible to arrange for concerts, lectures with limelight views, and bright entertainments to be given by kindly friends in the musical and entraining world. On these occasions the refectory, which is cleared for the purpose, is filled with a keenly appreciative audience, eager to profit by an hour's diversion from a life, which however interesting to the occasional visitor, becomes slow and monotonous to those who know nothing different for many weeks in succession.

Since the Parisian theaters and places of amusement have reopened their doors, the Ambulance also receives every week a number of free tickets for the convalescents who can bear the strain of a journey by automobile into the city. It is needless to say with what eagerness these occasions are anticipated, and how much delight is afforded to those who are fortunate enough to be able to leave the Ambulance for a few hours to enjoy them.

LIBRARY.

Thanks to the generosity of many friends the Ambulance was early equipped with a Library of some importance in both English and French. More books could still be advantageously utilized, especially in French, as almost the totality of the patients at the present time only read this language.

Ample supplies of daily newspapers, and weekly and monthly periodicals are being received, so that everyone in the Ambulance is kept posed on current events, viewed from almost all standpoints.

THE TERRACES

which from the roof of the wings of the front central building have proved of great value to the convalescent patients. On warm and sunny days, which are fortunately not entirely absent even in winter in Paris, the two spacious terraces are largely utilized by patients who can walk, or be wheeled along the corridors to take the much-desired bath of sunshine and fresh air. It is no unusual thing to see at the same time several wounded soldiers lying there in their beds, warmly wrapped up against cold winds.

With the arrival of the spring it is certain that the terraces will again be as popular as during last autumn, and there can be little doubt that they will play an important part in the rapid restoration to health of many of the patients.

TOBACCO AND CIGARETTES.

One of the ever-present problems is that of an adequate supply of tobacco and cigarettes, especially for the French wounded. During the time the Ambulance was in a large measure filled with British soldiers, little difficulty was experienced in this respect, because of the constant supplies received from the various societies specially organized in England for furnishing tobacco and cigarettes to this section of the Allied troops.

Now that the patients are almost entirely French, the position is somewhat different, because of the enormous calls made on all sides in this country, and it is still a matter of considerable difficulty to furnish a reasonable daily supply of tobacco and cigarettes to all the patients, without encroaching for this purpose on the regular funds, which the Committee believes should not be used for the purchase of extras of this kind. This feature therefore still needs special attention, and contributions ear-marked for this purpose will help to meet a notable need.

COST OF MAINTENANCE OF PATIENTS

While the Ambulance Committee decided form the outset to give the patients the best possible treatment, and to maintain a high degree of efficiency in all departments, their primary preoccupation, as was natural to administrators of public funds, was to secure a consistently reasonable cost of upkeep.

Many hours of careful discussion and thought, much studying of estimates, not a few interesting experiments and tentative modifications of certain features in the Ambulance have taken place during the six months of active work, all with a view to obtaining the maximum efficiency at the minimum cost, it being always borne in mind that the Ambulance could not do otherwise than maintain a high standard of thoroughness in every department, if success were to be assured.

The cost per patient, as is well known, is materially affected by the number of patients under treatment as compared with the unavoidable and fixed establishment expense. In an institution like the Ambulance, where everything had to be maintained in readiness for an emergency likely to greatly increase the number of patients within the space of a few hours, the cost per patient per day during the first two months, when the number of patients was either extremely low as in the first fortnight, or fluctuating rapidly, was relatively high, almost double that obtained during the later four months. This preliminary high cost will continue to affect the average figures materially and adversely until their influence has been spread over a long period of full activity, which, without being assured, now seems likely to be realized.

The average cost per patient per day ---these figures including all running expenses of the institution---maintenance of patients and staff, lighting, heating, medical supplies, bandages, dressings, transportation, cleaning, etc.---but not taking into account the cost of installation and equipment, or any probably salvage at the close of operations---amounts during the six months from 1st September to 28 February inclusive to Frs._____ ($_____), but if the preliminary months of September and October are not taken into account, the cost per patient per day does not exceed Frs._____($_____).

It is probable that with continued refinement, resulting from longer experience, these figures will be reduced, but the result already obtained may be considered as eminently gratifying, when all the many disadvantageous features of a temporary installation in a building not primarily adapted for a hospital, and working under war conditions, are taken into account.

Certain contributions in kind have been received, such as wine, provisions, linen, dressings, etc. which if calculated at their value and taken into account would slightly modify the above figure.

It should be added that the Ambulance Committee decided when the hospital was founded, that no advantage should be taken of the allowance of One Franc per patient per day made by the French Government to Military Hospitals. It was preferred that the institution should be maintained solely by voluntary contributions from the public, and the Committee's optimism in this respect has been fully justified.

TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT.

Neuilly being situated immediately outside the boundaries of Paris, it was essential for ensuring the conveyance of a number of the staff from the city gates to the Ambulance, and in order to promptly receive supplies at a time when no firms could undertake to make delivery of goods, to have a number of automobiles constantly at the disposal of the institution.

A few friends rendered valuable service to the Ambulance by placing unreservedly in the hands of the Committee several cars which could be utilized for these purposes, and during the past few months these cars have registered a more than ordinary mileage in their trips to and fro in the interests of the hospital.

With the increase in patients and staff it has been necessary to add more cars, and at present there are in use five cars for general transportation of staff and for the use of the Purchasing Department, three delivery vans for provisions and supplies, and ten cars used more especially for the personal service of Ambulance officials, and not exclusively attached to the institution.

FIELD AMBULANCE CARS.

In addition to the above, a set of ten light cars were fitted in August with covered bodies, arranged for carrying each two wounded men in a recumbent position, the original intention being to use these cars for conveying wounded from the stations in or near Paris to the Ambulance.

Early in September, during the operations connected with the Battle of the Marne these ten cars went on several occasions to Meaux, Lizy-sur-Ourcq and Coulommiers, transporting many wounded from the battlefield to places of safety for provisional attention, before returning with a full complement of wounded to be treated in the Ambulance of the Lycée Pasteur.

The utility of these special cars having been amply demonstrated in actual service under conditions such as would be likely to prevail during the war, and a sum of money having been offered for the particular purpose of purchasing and equipping several similar cars, to be placed eventually at the disposition of the military authorities, the Ambulance Committee decided, after careful consideration, to add this new department to the work already carried on. It was felt that no more humanitarian service could be rendered than that of facilitating the prompt conveyance of the wounded from exposed positions to places of safety where their injuries could receive attention under conditions likely to diminish their sufferings and ensure the saving of their lives.

The first unit of ten cars with one car for carrying repair parts and a pilot car was offered to the Red Cross Service of the British Army and commenced its work in November 1914. In its first period of service, extending over about two months, this unit carried 1846 wounded to the base hospitals or train heads, and proved to the ample satisfaction of all the authorities who saw them in operation the value of light cars, carrying only two wounded men, but sufficiently robust and resistant to run over rough uneven ground where ofttimes no proper roads exist, without risk of breakage or of becoming immobilized, as is often the case with the more powerful, but far heavier cars carrying more wounded.

Another unit attached later to the Red Cross organization of the British Army carried during its first period of service 536 wounded men.

A further unit of ten cars was later sent to work with the French Army, carrying during _____weeks a total of 1108 men.

A unit attached to the Belgian Army in Northern France rendered equally valuable service at a point where help of this kind was very necessary.

The original unit of ten cars which was used for some time between the stations and the Ambulance has now been despatched to the front, its place at Paris being taken by some larger cars of various types, which while not so well adapted for work in the field, meet all the requirements of a city service.

At the present time 43 light cars with 5 staff cars, all of a uniform type, are engaged in field work with the Allied Armies, and have already transported a total of _____ wounded to the train heads or base hospitals, the average length of each trip being _____ miles, while the service attached to the Lycée Pasteur has transported _____ men to be treated in the Ambulance, besides a very much larger number for other hospitals in Paris and suburbs who have no facilities of their own for conveying wounded from the stations.

It is scarcely necessary to state that the work of the Field Ambulance staff is extremely arduous, the men being exposed to all kinds of weather, obliged to content themselves with scanty housing accommodation, and often being compelled to work many hours beyond the ordinary day's work, without any possibility of resting, and snatching meals at chance moments.

The men engaged on this work are all Americans and volunteers, all of them enthusiastic and ready at any moment to lay everything aside and at the call for help from the military authorities, to throw all their energy into the task of picking up and conveying to places of safety the men who have just fallen in the fighting.

It will always be difficult to determine exactly how many lives have been saved by the prompt and opportune arrival on the scene of the swift little cars of the Field Ambulance Service, ready to rapidly transport to wounded to points where proper attention could be given them. It is however certain that many hundreds of men owe a notable abbreviation of their sufferings and often the saving of their lives to this special agency of our institution. No greater service could be rendered than that of making it possible for still more cars to be purchased, equipped and manned for work near the front, where prompt intervention is of such vital importance.

While the Ambulance Funds bore the cost of fitting up the chassis of the first ten cars for the wounded, which were presented to the Ambulance, and still defray the running expenses of all the cars used in or near Paris for the conveyance of the wounded and for general transportation, the Field Ambulance is supported from a special fund, subscribed up to the present by a few friends who have interested themselves more particularly in this department. A sum of Frs. _____ of $_____ has already been expended in equipping, maintaining and keeping in good repair the cars in service, and a balance of Frs._____ $_____ still remains in hand.

The gasolene and replace tyres of the Field Ambulance Cars are now furnished by the various armies to which the units are attached, but considerable sums are needed to cover other items of expense connected with the upkeep of the cars.

It may be said that a car of the approved type needs to be endowed with a fund of $1100 to cover the cost of men's uniforms and equipment and of the general maintenance of the car for a period of twelve months.

The rations of the men are provided by the military authorities while on service, but at all other times the cost of these must be defrayed from the funds furnished with the car.

The Ambulance Committee at the Lycée Pasteur, Neuilly-sur-Seine, or the American Committee representing the Ambulance at 14, Wall Street, New York, will always be please to give full details respecting the special ambulance cars to any friends who wish to aid in extending the operations of this most useful feature of the Ambulance.