Williams College



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IN June, 1916, as Williams was celebrating its one hundred and twenty-second Commencement, the summons to the National Guard broke unexpectedly into the reunion festivities on Monday of Commencement week. This was the forerunner of military activity that, months later, was to transform Williams into a training camp. The news reached the campus in the form of telegrams to individual members of the National Guard, who at once made it known to the other guardsmen. The class reunions were broken up; nearly one hundred of the younger alumni, members of military organizations in the various states, responded immediately; and about eighty saw border duty during the Mexican controversy. A large part of the fifty-seven Williams men from the Classes of 1899 to 1919, who were members of the New York National Guard, attended a reunion dinner at "La Blanca Plantación", McAllen, Texas, on September 16th, 1916, having as toastmaster Major James B. Richardson, '00, of the Second Field Artillery, and as guest of honor Brigadier General James. W. Lester, Union College '81.

In the Williams Alumni Review of January, 1917, there was published an official compilation of the attendance from leading eastern colleges at the Plattsburg Military Training Camps of 1916. This gave the Williams representation as 354 men, or a percentage of the total number of living graduates, non-graduates, and undergraduates not exceeded by that of any other institution named.



In November, 1916, in response to an appeal by the World Student Federation, approximately $8,600.00 was raised among the members of the college community,---the bulk of it coming from the undergraduates, for work among the prison camps of Europe, and, on January 11th, 1917, the sum of $1,600.00 was subscribed at the College for the purchase and maintenance in France for one year of a Williams ambulance. Additional subscriptions amounting to $12,000.00 were secured at a Williams meeting attended by about eight hundred people and held in the ballroom of the Plaza Hotel in New York on May 18th; contributions made by alumni and friends of the College, both before and after the meeting, increased the total to $19,600.00, a sum sufficient to provide sixteen ambulances for the American Field Service.

Near the end of the spring term, in June, 1917, a Williams Medical Reserve Unit, composed of thirty-one alumni and undergraduates, with five others from Williamstown, was recruited and went into training at Camp Crane, Allentown, Pennsylvania, as Section 595, preparing for ambulance service in France. In a few months the number of drivers overseas became sufficient to fill vacancies in the service as they occurred, the Williams Unit was disbanded in the spring of 1918, and its members transferred to other branches of the service.



"The general object of the Union shall be to meet the needs of American university and college men and their friends who are in Europe for military or other service in the cause of the Allies."

This quotation from its constitution, printed on the cover of the pamphlet published in December, 1917, by the American University Union in Europe, explains in a few words the purpose for which it was established. Because of the service which the Union rendered to Williams men overseas, this volume would be incomplete without a brief sketch of its activities. Quoting further from the pamphlet:

"The American University Union in Europe is the result of two movements---one in Paris and the other in this country---which have united to accomplish the same object, [quoted above]. The more specific purposes of the Union are thus stated in the constitution:

"1. To provide at moderate cost a home with the privileges of a simple club for American college men and their friends passing through Paris or on furlough: the privileges to include information bureau, writing and newspaper room, library, dining room, bedrooms, baths, social features, opportunities for physical recreation, entertainments, medical advice, etc.

"2. To provide a headquarters for the various bureaus already established or to be established in France by representative American universities, colleges, and technical schools.

"3. To co-operate with these bureaus when established, and in their absence to aid institutions, parents, or friends, in securing information about college men in all forms of war service, reporting on casualties, visiting the sick and wounded, giving advice, serving as a means of communication with them, etc.

"One of the movements which led to the establishment of the Union was begun by American college men abroad who met in Paris, June 17, 1917, and formed the American University Alumni Association in France. The meeting was attended by representatives of the ten following American institutions: Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Princeton, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Williams, and Yale. The objects of this Association as originally stated were 'to co-operate in all proper ways with university authorities in the United States for the general well-being of American university and college men who come to France'. The controlling body of this Association was a Board of Governors of which Mr. James Hazen Hyde, President of the Harvard Club of Paris, was the first president.. On being elected a member of the Executive Committee of the American University Union in Europe he resigned this position, and the Board was reorganized as an Advisory Council, now consisting of 24 members. Of this Council Mr. Edward Tuck, a graduate of Dartmouth College, is Chairman.

"A second factor leading to the establishment of the Union was the Yale Bureau in Paris, which was formally authorized in May, 1917, 'to supply a headquarters in France for Yale graduates, students and prospective students, and their friends'. The number of inquiries regarding the Bureau and the offers from other colleges to co-operate, soon led its founders to see that the plan should be broadened so as to include all representative American institutions of learning.

"Out of these two movements has developed the American University Union in Europe. Although organized to meet war needs it is the hope of its founders that the Union may prove a permanent institution helping, in co-operation with other organizations, to attract more American college men to France for graduate study, and to serve as an agency for cultivating a better understanding of the United States in England, France, Italy, and other European countries.

"After many conferences with officials of the Red Cross, the International Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association, and the War Department, a meeting was called at the University Club, New York City, on July 15, 1917, for the purpose of establishing the American University Union in Europe, adopting a constitution, and electing officers. The plan of organization agreed upon included a representative Board of Trustees in America, a small Executive Committee, in Paris, appointed by the Board, and an Advisory Council composed of representative American college and university men living in France. It was decided that the Union should be a co-operative enterprise enlisting the general support of American colleges and universities. * * * "

Six of the institutions represented at the meeting had, by December, 1917, sent special delegates who had offices at the headquarters of the Union, and a total of about ninety American institutions had become members.

"Professor Nettleton of Yale, Professor Paul Van Dyke of Princeton, and Mr. Evert Wendell of Harvard sailed for Paris on August 3 to serve with Mr. Van Rensselaer Lansingh of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as the nucleus of the Executive Committee. * * * In establishing the Union its officers have received the heartiest support from the American Embassy, the officers of the American Expeditionary Forces, the Red Cross, and the Y. M. C. A. The Union has also been much helped by the Intercollegiate Intelligence Bureau. Its office in Washington has been placed at the service of the Union, while the Union's Executive Committee in Paris aids the work of the Bureau in every way in its power. * * *

"Acting on the advice of the Advisory Council in Paris, the Executive Committee unanimously recommended to the trustees to rent for the period of the war the Royal Palace Hotel on the Place du Théâtre Français. * * * It faces south on an open square and has 80 outside bedrooms accommodating over one hundred men, in addition to attractive public rooms for reading and social purposes, and 42 modern bath rooms. There is an elevator and every other convenience. Each bedroom has running water, and through the co-operation of the municipal authorities, the Union is allowed to supply hot water daily, instead of only twice a week, the usual war allowance. * * * At the desk are kept a Members' Register and a Visitors' Book. In the former are registered all American college men, with their college and class, degree (if any or department, military rank or form of service, home address, and European address. * * ' Bulletin boards carry the rules and regulations of the Union [and miscellaneous information]. A canteen or small shop has been opened in the lobby. * * *

"The restaurant * * * provides luncheon for 4-1/2 francs, and dinner for 5-1/2 francs, in addition to a very moderate priced petit déjeuner. * * * Members who are on furlough in Paris for several days can secure pension at from 15 francs a day upward, everything included. A room for a single night costs from 6 francs up, a room with bath 10 francs. * * *

"The first floor and the entresol are used for the general purposes of the Union, the separate college bureaus being on the upper floors, visitors being assigned as far as possible to bedrooms on the same floor as the college bureau with which they are affiliated. * * * A special feature is made of the reading room and library. In addition to the most representative English and French periodicals, and the leading college papers, [many] American newspapers and magazines are regularly on file. * * *

"The Union was opened October 20, 1917. Representatives of thirty different American colleges took rooms the first night, while two weeks thereafter the Executive Committee cabled that the accommodations were 'overflowing'. By the close of the third week men had registered from eighty-three different institutions. * * *

"The opening exercises were simple. General Pershing was officially represented by General Allaire, Provost Marshal of the American Expeditionary Forces, while Ambassador Sharp, who was ill, sent a cordial message of greeting, referring to the purpose of the Union as 'in every way most commendable', and adding 'I am certain that the high personnel of the men who are associated with this enterprise will ensure its unqualified success'.

"On Tuesday afternoon, November sixth, the Union held its first reception for members and guests * * *Through receptions of this character an opportunity is afforded members of the Union to meet representative Americans resident in Paris. Informal 'smokers' are held from time to time, and afternoon tea is served daily. Entertainments and lectures are arranged as occasion offers."

The Williams man most active in the work of the Union in Paris was Lawrence Slade, '02, Vice-Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Advisory Council. The Union also maintained a London branch with rooms at 16 Pall Mall East, S. W. 1. Dr. George E. MacLean, '71, served as Honorary Secretary of the British Division of the American University Union in Europe in charge of the Social Headquarters in the London Branch, and was a Director from 1919 to 1923.



The vivid memories of the war years recede more and more into the past, but in the wake of the conflict the problems of domestic readjustment and world reconstruction still press urgently for settlement. The most notable contribution of Williams College to the solution of these questions is the Institute of Politics, the object of which "is to promote the study of international problems and relations with a view to creating a more sympathetic understanding of the ideals and policies of other nations. This purpose it seeks to accomplish by means of courses of public lectures delivered by distinguished scholars and statesmen from foreign countries, and by round-table and open conferences under the direction of leading authorities on the various topics for discussion. * * * Membership in the Institute is open to men and women connected with the faculties of colleges and universities, especially in the departments of history, economics, and government; to writers on foreign politics; to persons engaged in or who have been engaged in the direction of foreign commerce or banking; to diplomatic or consular officials; to officers of the army and navy, and specialists in the employ of the Government; to editors, editorial writers, and foreign correspondents of the press; and to those who receive invitations on account of their training and experience in the field of international law and politics."(1)

While the general plan of the Institute first took shape in the mind of President Garfield as long ago as 1913 and received the approval of the Board of Trustees at its meeting on May 1st of that year, it was of necessity laid aside during the war, and the first session was not held until the summer of 1921. Made possible financially through the generosity of Hon. Bernard M. Baruch of New York, the Institute with its frank and intensely interesting discussions, in which markedly divergent opinions are expressed, has proved eminently successful.

Chief Justice William Howard Taft

At the opening exercises of the first session, the Honorary Chairman of the Board of Advisers, Chief Justice William Howard Taft of the United States Supreme Court, presided, saying during the course of his address:(2)

"President Garfield is to be congratulated on conceiving the idea of calling together this assembly and on carrying his project through to this successful consummation. It would be difficult, perhaps, even if every people understood the standpoint of every other people in the world, to reconcile differences and maintain complete good feeling. Still, the greatest obstruction to the world's maintaining harmony among its members is the misunderstanding between them and the lack of accurate information which one nation may have of the exact situation of the other, and of the necessary effect of that situation upon that other's views of their relations. * * * Any legitimate means for bringing home to one nation the facts as to the other's situation and its real interests, must make for a more reasonable compromise and the reconciling of the interests of both. * * * Progress made in any field of human activity is dependent upon reliable and accurate evidence as to the relevant facts. * * *

"This Institute was conceived before the war came on, but its organization had to be postponed because of the war. The war made its usefulness clearer. We are apt to indulge in a pessimistic estimate of the good that the war has done because of the failure to realize the enthusiastic hopes of the noble men and women of all the nations, who offered up their great sacrifices in the confidence that the defeat of Germany and the victory of the rest of the world over the German ambition would end war forever and lead to an abiding peace and prosperity under peace. Such an end as this is not achieved all at once. The elimination of Germany's destructive ambition is a great step forward, but it is not everything. A huge task confronts the world now that that victory has been won. The war has done a great deal to change the international mind and the psychology of peoples, and has impressed the whole world, as never before, with the inevitable interdependence of peoples and countries, and the necessity for recognizing and acting upon it if prosperity is to be restored, if the world is to progress at all, and if it is to be worth living in. We who have suffered the least loss in the war are perhaps the last thus to be affected. Yet the sequelae of the war are teaching us and have greatly changed our attitude towards other countries. Never before in the history of this country have our foreign relations become as important as they are today. Never before has it been so clear that our own prosperity is to be dependent on our relations to other countries and the maintenance of those relations in a friendly state of mutual confidence and good wishes. Men and statesmen may differ as to the means by which we shall give permanence to this change of mind, and embody it in formal association with other nations; but circumstances are forcing us to a closer actual relation with the rest of the world.

"At such a time an institute like this can be of much service in giving to our leaders and the guides of our foreign policy a valuable source of needed information. It will also give to those who spread information through the country and instruct the people, a means of accurately informing themselves and giving the people a clearer idea of what justice is between the nations. This Institute of Politics is designed to enable us to come nearer to the truth which, when known, will make the family of nations free from the evil and disaster of misunderstanding."

Mayor Andrew J. Peters, of Boston, and President Abbot Lawrence Lowell, of Harvard University, also spoke. The Governor of Massachusetts was prevented by illness from being present. President Lowell concluded his address with these words:

"It does not seem impossible that every people may, in the words of Lincoln, 'resolve that it will do all that it may to achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace with all nations'.

"I know that many people think such things as these visionary. Our forefathers saw visions and they made them true, and we live on the fruit of those visions today. The spring of visions is not exhausted; it can continue and must continue, for 'where there is no vision the people perish'. But there is a difference in visions. There is the vision of the desert where in a mirage one sees distant water which is not there. There is the vision of the far-off thundercloud that looks like a snow-mountain in the distance, but comes with destructive force. There is the vision of the real snow-peak, supported by a mass of rock, itself built up upon the framework of the world.

"Those of us who have faith that men are not destined to perdition upon this earth, that they are not doomed to torture and destroy one another by constantly recurring wars, each more ferocious and destructive than the last---those of us who have faith that knowledge, on the whole, leads to wisdom and to virtue, hail this conference, because its object is to search for solid facts and look those facts in the face. And this cannot fail to help in the betterment of man."

Foremost among the distinguished statesmen who addressed the meetings in Chapin Hall was the former British Ambassador, Viscount Bryce, whose last great contribution to the thought of the world before his death was his series of lectures in 1921 upon "International Relations". In them he reviewed the causes of war, and from his ripe experience suggested methods by which in the future war might be averted, ending with this appeal to the citizens of the United States:(3)

"You may ask, What is it that any one of us, you here or we in England, can do as individual citizens to improve the character of international relations, and especially to provide security against the outbreak of future wars? To answer this question let me say a few concluding words bearing not only on the causes of war but on the whole subject of international policies which we have been studying. We have already seen how much violence and deceit there has been in the conduct of States towards one another, how much national ambition and national vanity, masquerading under the garb of patriotism, in the minds of peoples as well as among their leaders, and how the leaders have played upon these foibles and follies of the individual citizens. Now, what is a State? Nothing but so many individual citizens organized into one community. Such as the citizens are, such will the leaders be, because they desire to please the citizens. If the citizens are swayed by the impulses of vanity and ambition, their leaders will try to win support by playing up or playing down to such passions. If, on the other hand, the citizens demand from those who guide the State uprightness and fair dealing and a considerate respect for the rights of others, and if they reprobate and dismiss any statesman who falls below the moral standard they set up, their leaders will try to conform to that standard. If the moral standards of States have been generally lower than those of the average good citizens in a civilized country, why has this been so? Because rapacity and vanity and hatred and revenge are mitigated or reduced in private social life by sympathy, kindliness, and affection, these beneficent human feelings tempering or restraining or overcoming the bitter and unwholesome passions. In the relations of States these better feelings have had little or no scope and power, because men do not feel towards other States as they do feel towards their neighbors and acquaintances. If the sentiment of a common humanity which moves your hearts when you hear of sufferings in other countries, the sentiment which made you send splendidly generous gifts for the relief at one time of Sicilian sufferers from the earthquake at Messina and at another of Chinese peasants dying of famine, which led your Government to remit the Boxer indemnities and made you as private citizens subscribe tens of millions of dollars to feed the children of the Armenian mothers slaughtered by the Turks in 1915----if that sentiment, coupled with the sense that all nations are the children of one Father in Heaven, were to lay hold of the peoples of the world and make them regard the peoples of other countries as fellow-citizens in the commonwealth of mankind, would not the attitude of States towards one another be changed, and changed fundamentally for the better? Would not the sense of co-operation temper the eagerness of competition, and reinforce the belief that more will be gained for each and all by peace than has been gained or ever will be gained by war? You may say, What can private citizens do? Well, the State is made up of private citizens and such as they are such will the State be. Each of us as individuals can do little, but many animated by the same feeling and belief can do much. What is Democracy for except to represent and express the convictions and wishes of the people? The citizens of a democracy can do everything if they express their united will. The raindrops that fall from the clouds unite to form a tiny rill, and, meeting other rills, it becomes a rivulet, and the rivulet grows to a brook, and the brooks as they join one another swell into a river that sweeps in its resistless course downward to the sea. Each of us is only a drop, but together we make up the volume of public opinion which determines the character and action of a State. What all the nations now need is a public opinion which shall in every nation give more constant thought and keener attention to international policy, and lift it to a higher plane. The peoples can do this in every country if the best citizens give them the lead. You in America are well fitted to set an example in this effort to the European peoples smitten down by the war, and painfully struggling to regain their feet. They will gratefully welcome whatever you may do now or hereafter by sympathy and counsel or by active co-operation in efforts to redress the injustices and mitigate the passions which distract most parts of the Old World. Your help, your powerful and disinterested help, will be of incomparable service in every effort to rescue your brother peoples from the oldest and deadliest of all the evils that have afflicted mankind."

The 1921 Institute was brought to a close on the evening of August 26th with the dinner in the Lasell Gymnasium, addressed in short speeches of farewell by the lecturers---Senator Tommaso Tittoni, President of the Italian Senate and former Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs; Viscount James Bryce; Baron Sergius A. Korff, former Assistant Governor General of Finland; Count Paul Teleki, former Premier of the Hungarian Republic; and Professor Achille Viallate of the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques at Paris. The sixth lecturer, Hon. Stephen Panaretoff, the Bulgarian Minister at Washington, had already departed to sail for Europe.

Hon. Elihu Root

The principal speaker of the evening was the former Secretary of State, Hon. Elihu Root, who delivered a masterful address from which the following excerpts are taken:(4)

"* * * I wish, sir, in behalf of a great body of Americans who have not had the privilege of meeting with you, to give their thanks to you, Mr. Garfield, for your vision and devotion and effectiveness in conducting this Institute; to your devoted assistants, your trustees and your faculty, who have put the resources of this noble old institution at the service of the Institute; to the generous donor who has made it possible; and especially to the distinguished gentlemen who have taken the trouble to cross the broad Atlantic, to brave the horrors of a savage land in order to contribute their part towards the success and effectiveness of this most extraordinary and successful meeting.

"Its value cannot well be overestimated. The character of the discussion, both in your round-tables and in your lectures, has been practical, has dealt with the actual conditions of mankind, with the concrete; and it has all been a most delightful contrast to those wildernesses of words which have ordinarily been employed in the discussion of international affairs in America in former years. Your eminence in your own countries as well as your personal abilities have struck the imagination of the American press and the substance of your words has been carried to the remotest part of this great country, published in a thousand journals, commented upon in thousands of editorials. You have done that most difficult thing, you have gained a hearing upon a topic which has never until very recent years elicited the slightest interest from the people of the United States. The effect of this in itself will be very great, and as an example it will be greater still. As an earnest of the future it is a most valuable gift that you have brought to us. Never before in the history of the world has there been so much occasion for an effort of this description. The war has left many changes, but one of the greatest is the change in the possession of power in the government of the world. The old autocracies by their methods of conducting international affairs practically compelled all the world to conduct their affairs in similar ways. But autocracy has passed off the stage, and now enters democracy to rule the world.

"Not only are democracies conducting the governments of the world, not only do democracies hold in their hands the power of government, but the effect of the war has been to set free the millions or people who constitute these new governing bodies from their old habit of respect for authority in matters of opinion, to emancipate them from their old habits and customs and ways of thought and feeling and living. They demand the right of decision. They follow close upon the heels of their representatives and dictate what they shall do. Open diplomacy, they demand, that we may decide. And who shall deny them? Who, subject to certain limitations imposed by common sense, wants to deny them? If the people are to rule as they are to rule, they should know; and all the agents of government should be not only willing but insistent that the real rulers shall know.

"Now the problem that all those who seek to promote a world in which peace and prosperity and noble character and opportunity for progress rest upon security and justice, have to solve, is changed completely. The old autocracies understood international affairs thoroughly, but the old autocracies were utterly selfish. The newly governing democracies are generous. They mean what is right; they are honest; they wish for peace; they abhor war; but they are most imperfectly informed. Many of them are quite oblivious to the fact that there are different backgrounds, different ways of thinking and feeling among the peoples of other countries. It does not occur to them that a thousand years of development in another country with another language, another literature, other customs, will have produced in the back of every man's head a set of ideas which change the value and the meaning of every word that is spoken and every act that is done.

"Many of them assume that their own ideas are the ideas which ought to prevail and which will prevail if only the world does what is right. Many of them are untrained, uninformed, and often misinformed. And many, many of them are quite oblivious to the duty of acquainting themselves with the facts of international relations and the rules that experience has shown to be necessary in the conduct of international affairs. Many of them think that all international affairs are simple, because they assume that they can all be settled by adopting their idea. Many of them are quite ignorant of all the difficulties that stand in the way of reconciling the different feelings and interests and ideas of the people of different countries. * * *

"Now this is quite plain: If one is to sail in an airship he wants the builders and the crew to know their trade, and if the democracies of the world are to control the international affairs of civilization they must make it their duty to learn the business they are at, for without that they will make sad havoc and have to come to their lesson ultimately through hard experience. They must learn in each country, these plain people, the limitations upon their national rights. * * * You will find in every country people who, in looking at the conduct of their country in its foreign relations, assume that there is only one side to every question, and that is their country's side, their own side. They must learn that they have duties as well as rights. As old Francis Lieber used to say, there can be no right without a duty. They must learn that they hold the right upon the condition of performing the duty. They must learn that the ideal of justice is not merely justice to themselves and their wives and children, but it is justice accorded by them to others. They must learn that the ideal of liberty is not merely that they shall be free, but that they shall be willing and glad that others shall be free. They must learn to realize the rightful and unobjectionable differences between nations, and to respect the right to differ, not to treat it as cause of offense. They must learn that in international affairs, just as in family affairs and neighborhood affairs, respect for the feelings and the prejudices of others is a condition of having one's own feelings and prejudices respected. * * * They must learn to have kindly consideration and they must learn the art of mutual concession. They must become internationally minded. They must learn a broader truth, that not what a nation does for itself but what a nation does for humanity is its title to honor and glory. They must learn that in God's good world the way to scale the heights of prosperity and happiness is not to pull down others and climb up over them, but to help all up together to united success.

"This will be a long, slow process. * * * We must make the ascent from the low level of squabbling and quarreling and hatred and dislike to the level of true manhood, patient and considerate, kind and magnanimous. The curve will be so gradual that at each point the divergence from the straight line will be imperceptible.

"Now how can this be done? How can this mighty change be brought about? Well, education, of course; by education. But how to educate those who are blind and cannot see, those who are deaf and cannot hear? That is the great value of what you have been doing. You probably have not been hearing any new things, you probably have not been saying any new things, but you have been putting into good intelligent form the old things which you knew long before you came here. You have tried to say a thing so that plain people could hear it and you have been speaking to them through that great institution, the press. The press---ah, that is the great strength of a nation! It has been doing great things on your behalf. From a thousand editorial offices every day your words have gone throughout the country, carrying on the process of education. But in the process a conflict between the old standards and the new goes on without ceasing. Misinformation goes without the corrective of adequate education, and it will lower the public standard of action. The leaders of opinion must be created, and in that you have been doing a most useful work. * * *

"Of course you cannot in any country turn everybody into an international lawyer or a trained diplomat. But there can be in every community a center of influence among the plain people, some leader who will teach them to know the truth about it, to lead the thought of his community. Every library should have placed in it the sources of information from which the truth about international affairs can be distributed to the people of the community. Every high school should have a library containing the works of those who know the truth about international affairs and where the pupils can study about international affairs. * * *

"You will perceive that this is but an extension of the process of free government; that the same lesson has to be learned by any race, any people who attain to the blessing of free institutions: * * * How long and slow that process is, we all know. We have not succeeded yet in reaching our ideal. We have learned long ago from bitter experience that to make men free from despotic control does not make them free from the consequences of their ignorance. * '* * Apparent democracy does not carry with it the assurance of honest and efficient government. That development is acquired by slow and hard experience. * * * The same qualities which make a people competent for free self-government are the qualities which will make this world a world of peace and justice. There is the augury for the future. * * *

"The important thing is, not to be impatient, not to be discouraged because everything is not done at once as we think it ought to be. * * * But the important thing is, not to try to measure the workings of this great community of the world in the terms of our short lives. It is to observe not the conditions of the moment but the tendency of the hour---the tendency of the nations during the centuries. If ever so little they move in the right direction, then what is required is not spectacular achievement which will make some man famous, but the steady and unresting efforts into which all of us put our lives, to be forgotten and live only in the great result of the future.

"Do not let us be discouraged. The great thing is that democracies are interested. I don't know how it is across the Atlantic, but I know here in America that in the many years that I have been observing public affairs there never has been so much interest in questions of right and wrong, what is practical and expedient and what is a people's duty, in international affairs, as today. I do not think this Institute would have been possible ten years ago-surely not for it to gain such a hearing. And I am enough of a believer in free self-government to be sure that if the people will really address themselves to the subject, if they will be interested in it and apply themselves to it, they will come out all right. It is indifference that is fatal, that one does not care whether he is doing right or wrong. * *

But the peoples who were competent for the war and the peoples who are competent for self-government are going to be able to understand, international questions and to deal with them.

"The lessons of the war are not lost, but in the distressing circumstances which have followed it they have ceased to be felt and to be applied. The lessons of the brotherhood of man learned on the fields of France and Flanders, Italy and Poland, and the Russian frontier---the lesson of universal condemnation of ruthless and brutal greed for power, the lesson of the underlying nobility in the plain people who met there for the first time to risk and give up their lives, the beauty of service and sacrifice---these are not forgotten and they will not be. They will all remain in the consciousness of the world.

"After all this petty strife and grasping have been ended, after all this selfish ambition has been forgotten, we shall recover our sense of exalted patriotism. We have all gazed from the mountain top upon a fair land beautiful in peace and justice, and now we are wandering in the foothills, turning to the right and to the left before unexpected obstacles. But the vision is not forgotten; the impulse is not spent; the world is still seeking to regain its lost vision on the heights; the world is still seeking anxiously for the way and it is manfully striving for that goal to which through knowledge it will slowly come."

The last words had been spoken, the session had ended, and the diners had departed, when the glow from the chapel windows led one of the guests to the sanctuary of Williams men; and there at midnight in the silent, deserted building, standing before the tomb of the Founder with only the light from the chancel flooding down upon them, and reverently gazing up at the Roll of Honor, were James Bryce, Harry Garfield, and Elihu Root.



Enlisted Soldat in French Transport Serv. May 19, 1917; sailed from New York reaching Bordeaux May 30; with French Motor Transport Unit 133, Reserve Mallet, attached to 10th Army; promoted to Sgt. then to Lieut. ; 1st Lieut. U.S.A. Oct. 2 while in France; assigned to Bat. F, 7th F.A. Oct. 1917-Mar. 1918; G-1, G.H.Q., A.E.F. Mar-July; then to 2nd Bn. Hq. 7th F.A. and later C.O. Bat. A, 7th F.A. all in 1st Div. U.S.A.; engagements at Chemin-des-Dames, Sommerviller, Ansauville, Soissons, St. Mihiel, Argonne-Meuse, Sedan; Capt. Nov. 6; ill with blood poisoning and trench mouth in hosp. at Nantes Nov. 18, 1918-Apr. 17, 1919; cited in G.O. 94, 1st Div. Dec. 13, 1918:

"Gallantly commanded his battery during the operations north of Verdun Oct. 4 to Nov. 10, 1918, inclusive, executed the missions assigned him with promptness and precision, laid his guns with great accuracy and helped by his fire to break up two enemy counterattacks, neutralized batteries and destroyed machine gun nests; also displayed coolness and leadership throughout the action by visiting his guns under heavy shell fire and encouraging his men by his presence and keenness for action."

Disch. Apr. 17, 1919; returned to New York May 26; cited in G.O. 14, Hq. 1st F.A. Brig. Aug. 16, 1919:

"Gallantly and efficiently commanded his battery in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive through a period of forty-two days, commencing Oct. 1, 1918. Through his own courage and self-control, he maintained a high morale among his men which greatly enabled them to perform their difficult missions promptly and effectively."

Awarded Meritorious Services Citation Certificate by Commanding General A.E.F. Mar. 18, 1920:

"For exceptionally meritorious and conspicuous services with the Organization and Equipment Division, G-1, General Headquarters".



Enlisted in Amer. Field Serv. May 1917; sailed for France July 3; drove ammunition truck for French Army until Nov. 18; enlisted in Amer. Aviation Serv. Paris Dec. 27, 1917; training camps at Voves and Avord, France until Armistice; 2nd Lieut. May 18, 1918; returned to New York Jan. 28, 1919; disch. Jan. 31, 1919.



Enlisted in Amer. Amb. Field Serv. and sailed for France Apr. 5, 1917; served three months in Amer. Field Serv. and then enlisted in French Army, Aviation Corps; trained at Voves and Avords; appointed French Military Pilot; transf. to U.S. Army; 1st A-A.I.C. Issoudun; Amer. Military Pilot; 2nd Lieut. Air Serv. Aviation; double pneumonia and pleurisy, Issoudun Jan. 19, 1918; double pneumonia Oct. 19, 1918; disch. Jan. 18, 1919. Transportation Manager for Amer. Fund for French Wounded, France. Under Secretary Amer. Mission to Poland. First Secretary to Interallied Mission to Teschen, Lower Silesia. Acting Amer. Delegate, Interallied Mission to Teschen.



Enlisted in France in S.S.U. 639, Amer. Field Serv. Sept. 2, 1917; Sgt. 1st cl. Oct. 1, 1917; 2nd Lieut. Sept. 19, 1918; Section 683 M.T.C.; in action in Oise Sept. 2-Nov. 1, 1917; Champagne Nov. 1917Mar. 1918; Montdidier Apr.-July; Marne in July; Verdun in Oct.; Ardennes Nov. 1918; Croix de Guerre, Silver Star, with Divisional citation, French Armies of the East, Order No. 12.779 "D", Jan. 8, 1919:

"Ancien volontaire, au front depuis Août 1917. S'est signalé par son sang-froid et son courage dans l'exécution de son service, assurant avec une grande rapidité, l'évacuation de nombreux blessés depuis les postes avancés, malgré le bombardement de l'artillerie ennemie, en particulier les 16 et 17 Juillet, 1918."

Returned to Hoboken Aug. 17, 1919; disch. Aug. 21, 1919.



95th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, was killed in action near Toul, France, May 17, 1918.

He enlisted for six months in the Ambulance Service and sailed from New York for France in May, 1917, transferring soon after landing for an enlistment of equal length as a munition truck driver. He was commended by his French commander:

"Pour le sang-froid et le courage dont il a fait preuve dans la nuit du 28 Juillet 1917, au cours d'un déchargement dans un Dépôt soumis à un violent bombardment".

When his term of duty expired he entered the Air Service, acting as Instructor while still a cadet, was made Pilot in November, and was commissioned First Lieutenant in December, 1917. He drove a fast fighting monoplane, and served several times as Flight Commander, being unofficially credited with the destruction of an enemy biplane. On May 17, 1918, while forming with another pilot of his squadron the escort for an observation plane in a battery-ranging mission over the enemy lines, Lieutenant Blodgett engaged one German in battle and drove him down, but he failed to return with the other American aviator upon the completion of the mission. When he finally appeared his plane was not in perfect control, and before reaching the airdrome suddenly side-slipped to the ground. Bullet holes in the machine showed that he had encountered another enemy, and, though wounded, he had remained conscious long enough to enable him to return within the lines. Lieutenant Blodgett died shortly after his fall.



Went to France Feb. 17, 1917 in Amer. Field Serv.; in S.S.U. 8 and S.S.U. 628. Enlisted Sept. 23, 1917 at Ste. Menehould, France; transf. to F.A. in May; attended Arty. School at Saumur in July; 2nd Lieut. Sept. 27, 1918; served in Hq. Troop, 1st Army; Bat. A, 21st F.A.; Bat. E, 338th F.A.; 234th Co. M.P. Corps; in action at: Verdun; Argonne; Champagne; Somme Valley; returned to New York June 20, 1919; disch. June 30, 1919.



Sailed from New York to Bordeaux in Amer. Field Serv. June 30, 1917; Pvt. in S.S.U. 15, later U.S. Section 633 U.S.A. Amb. Corps; in action at Mort-Homme Aug. 1917; Aisne Defensive May 191; 2nd Battle of the Marne; Aisne Offensive in Oct.; awarded Croix de Guerre with Divisional citation Order 11.504 Nov. 12, 1918 Hq. French Armies of the North and Northeast:

"Conducteur ayant au plus haut degré l'esprit du devoir. A fait preuve pendant les journées du 15, 16 et 17 Juillet 1919 d'une énergie absolue, rivalisant d'audace et de sang-froid. A assuré l'évacuation des blessés de la Division à quelques centaines de mètres de l'ennemi, sous des bombardements intenses, avec un entrain et une audace admirables."

Disch. in France Mar. 20, 1919; returned to New York Apr. 27, 1919; 2nd Lieut. Cav. O.R.C. 61st Div.



Enlisted in Amer. Field Serv. and sailed from New York for France June 30, 1917; assigned to S.S.U. 15, attached to French Army in Verdun Sector; in action Mort Homme Hill and Hill 304 in Aug.; Pvt. 1st cl. U.S.A. Amb. Serv. Sept. 28, 1917; served with S.S.U. 633 driving an ambulance, attached to 124th Div. French Army; in action: Reims July 1918; Reims-Suippes Sector, Mézières, and Charleville Sept.-Nov.; awarded Croix de Guerre with Army Corps citation, Order No. 31.457 "D", French Armies of the North and Northeast Nov. 10, 1918:

"Engagé volontaire, a fait preuve d'un courage au-dessus de tout éloge. Dès les premières heures d'une attaque les 15, 16 et 17 Juillet 1918, s'est rendu aux postes de secours lea plus avancés de PROSNES, ESPLANADE et CONSTANTINE à quelque centaines de metres de l'ennemi, sous un bombardement terrible et a assuré l'évacuation des blessés pendant 3 jours et 3 nuits sur des pistes et des routes soumises à des tirs continus de l'artillerie ennemie. A donné le plus bel exemple de dévouement et provoqué l'admiration de tous."

Returned to U.S. Apr. 1919; disch. Apr. 26, 1919.



Joined Amer. Amb. Field Serv. as Driver Apr. 16, 1917; sailed for France May 5, 1917; assigned to S.S.U. 27, Convois Automobiles attached to 132nd Div. French Army; served in Champagne latter part of 1917 Offensive; Mont Cornillet Sector June 9; région des Monts de Champagne in Aug.; Auberive-Souain-St. Souplet Sector in Oct. Transf. to Hq. Foyer du Soldat Y.M.C.A. Nov. 4, 1917; drove to every sector of the front, from Dunkirk through the Somme, Aisne, Champagne, Argonne, Verdun, Lorraine, Vosges, and Alsace Reconquise; returned to U.S. and disch. Aug. 3, 1918. Entered Williams S.A.T.C. Oct. 1, 1918; 7th Co. C.M.G. O.T.S. Camp Hancock, Ga. Oct. 10-Dec. 1; transf. to 27th Co. Camp Gordon, Ga. Dec. 1; disch. Dec. 24, 1918.



Volunteered with Amer. Field Serv. June 1917; sailed from New York to Liverpool July 10, 1917; assigned to Field Serv. Staff in Paris; Acting head of the Gen. Office; assisted in routing men to various Amb. Sections; Chief of Bureau of Passports; four or five expeditions along the front, two of them to Verdun; returned to New York Jan. 1, 1918. Volunteered in A.R.C. July 1918; sailed Oct. 6, 1918; technically listed as Casualty Searcher but served as Chaplain at Base Hosp. 30, Royat, France, with rank of 2nd Lieut. A.R.C.; returned to New York Jan. 4, 1919; commissioned Chaplain O.R.C. (Capt.) Apr. 23, 1923.



Enlisted in Amer. Field Serv. and sailed for France Feb. 13, 1917; Amb. Driver S.S.U. 15, Mar.-Aug.; awarded Croix dc Guerre with Bronze Star for service at Verdun Aug. 22 with following Regimental citation of the Amb. Serv. of the 16th Army Corps, Order No. 138, dated Sept. 4:

"Avait déjà donne à son officier la mesure de son sang-froid en sauvant le 19 Juillet dernier un soldat français en danger de se noyer; Conducteur merveilleux, a été spécialement remarqué par son Lieutenant le 20 Août au matin, en parcourant une zone violemment bombardée, s'exposant au danger pour abréger le transport de trois blessés gravement atteints."

Enlisted in U.S. Air Serv. Signal Corps Sept. 1917; in training at Issoudun and Tours, France Sept. 1917-Jan. 1918; 1st Lieut. 1st Pursuit Group, 95th Aero Sq. in Feb.; later Capt. and subsequently Maj. in same Sq.; in action at: Toul May-June; Château-Thierry July-Aug.; St. Mihiel in Sept.; Argonne-Meuse Oct.-Nov.; Patrol Leader of Sq. Aug. 1918; an Ace, officially credited with bringing down six enemy planes; awarded Croix de Guerre with Gold Star and Palm Aug. 29, under Army Corps citation, French Armies of the East, Order No. 12.027 "D" Nov. 29:

"Pilote de chasse remarquable, consciencieux et habile. A abattu deux avions ennemis, l'un le 27 Mai, 1918, l'autre le 16 Juillet, 1918. A déjà été cité à l'ordre."

Awarded Distinguished Service Cross Oct. 10:

"For extraordinary heroism in action in the region of Stenay, France, September 27, 1918: Lieutenant Curtis volunteered to perform a reconnaissance patrol of particular danger and importance, 30 kilometers within the enemy's territory. He made the entire journey through a heavy anti-aircraft and machine-gun fire, and flew at an extremely low altitude to secure the desired information."

(Citation also published in G.O. No. 138 War Dept. Dec. 23, 1918.)

Awarded Citation Certificate by Commanding General A.E.F Nov. 1, 1918:

"For distinguished, exceptional gallantry at Woël, Belgium, on the 14th day of September, 1918, in the operations of the American Expeditionary Forces".

Similar citation published in Citation Orders No. 1, June 3, 1919.

Awarded War Medal by Aero Club of America Dec. 28, 1918 "in recognition of valor and distinguished service"; received medal from Aero Club of France; assigned for a time to duty with Peace Commission in Paris Feb. 1919; returned to U.S. Mar. 2 and for three months was on duty in Washington, D.C. engaged in preparing manual to be used in training pursuit pilots; disch. June 1, 1919; received Russian Order of St. Anne May 1920 conferred by Gen. Indenitch, commanding northwest White Russian army, for services performed during operations against Soviet army in Petrograd.



Sailed from New York to Bordeaux Apr. 1915; enlisted in Field Serv. French Army; Ypres-Yser 1915; Hartmannsweilerkopf 1915-1916; Verdun 1916; awarded Croix de Guerre July 7, 1916 with the following citation of the 129th Div. 2nd French Army, Order No. 19:

"A fait preuve à la Section Sanitaire Américaine No. 3 d'un entier dévouement en particulier au cours des missions dangereuses effectuées sous le feu de l'ennemi en Décembre-Janvier 1916 et pendant la période du 22 Juin au 2 Juillet 1916."

Morocco Sept. 1916-Apr. 1917; enlisted in U.S.A. Air Serv. July 1917; 1st Lieut. in Aug.; 1st Air Depot, Colombey-les-Belles, A.E.F. Oct. 1917-Mar. 1918, serving as Adjt. and CO.; Intelligence Officer Apr.-May; transf. to Inf. 30th Div. in June; A.D.C. to Commanding General 2nd Army Corps July 1918-Feb. 1919; Somme Defensive, Somme Offensive and Kemmel Hill in 1918; made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France fall of 1918; Capt. Feb. 1919; assigned to Amer. Embarkation Centre Feb.-Aug., when disch. Joined Northwestern Russian White Army Sept. 1919.



Sailed from New York to Bordeaux as volunteer in Amer. Field Serv. June 25, 1917; at front Chemin-des-Dames 1917. Served in France as Pvt. in Med. Dept. until Mar. 1918 when transf. to F.A., U.S.A.; attended F.A. School Saumur; 2nd Lieut. July 10; 151st F.A. 42nd Div.; in action at: St. Mihiel; Château-Thierry; Argonne Forest; wounded in action at St. Mihiel Sept. 12, 1918 and in hosp. for one month; returned to New York Feb. 16, 1919; disch. Feb 27, 1919.



Enlisted in France in Amer. Field Amb. Serv. Dec. 2, 1916; Amb. duty in Vosges Mts.; later enlisted in Aviation, French Army; attended School for Officers, Fontainebleau; Aspirant July 1918; transf. to Observation for Arty.; 232e Regt. Arty. Corps, 164th Div. 6e Armée; in action at Chemin-des-Dames and Aisne Offensive and in Belgium; awarded Croix de Guerre with Bronze Star, Regimental citation, Order No. 74, Nov. 22, 1918:

"Aspirant américain, engagé dans l'Armée Française pour la durée de la guerre, d'un moral et d'un entrain au-dessus de tout éloge. Arrivé à la Batterie, sur la Vesle, a secondé de tous les moyens le Commandant de Batterie et particulièrement dans les Flandres."

Sous-Lieut. Jan. 1919; disch. in Jan.; returned to U.S. Mar. 13, 1919.



Enlisted in French Army as member of Amer. Amb. Serv. June 26, 1917; reached Bordeaux July 3; S.S.U. 21, July. 5-12; ambulance driver S.S.U. 69, July 12-Oct. 24; Reims and Verdun July-Oct.; Hill 344 and Beaumont Oct. 1-18; returned to New York Nov. 27, 1917. Enlisted in U.S.A. Co. 18, 158th D.B. Camp Jackson, S. C. Feb. 19, 1918; assigned to Motor Truck Co. 40, M.T.C. Mar. 2-June 26; Sgt. Mar. 13, 1918; Q.M.C., O.T.S. Camp Joseph E. Johnston, Fla. June 27-Aug. 13; 2nd Lieut. Q.M.C. Aug. 13, 1918; Property Officer M.T.C. Div. Camp Johnston until Jan. 22, 1919; 1st Lieut. Oct. 29, 1918; transf. to Chicago as Asst. Property Officer, M.T.C. Hq. Jan. 24, 1919; disch. Mar. 24, 1919.



Enlisted May 17, 1917 In the Amer. Field Serv.; sailed from New York to Bordeaux May 26; Amb. Driver and Pvt. in French Army, Amb. Section 29 with 120th Div. French Army; in action in Verdun Sector during summer and fall of 1917; received Croix de Guerre, Divisional citation Order No. 141, Oct. 17, 1917, 120th Div. of Inf.:

"A fait preuve, au cours des opérations de la Côte 304 d'un grand dévouement; s'est particulièrement distingué le 1er et le 2 Août, 1917, dans l'accomplissement de son service de conducteur d'auto sanitaire en évacuant de nombreux blessés sur une route vue de l'ennemi et incessamment bombardée."

Disch. as physically unfit Nov. 8; returned to New York Nov. 29, 1917.



Enlisted in France in Amer. Field Amb. Serv. Dec. 2, 1916; Amb. duty in Vosges Mts.; later enlisted in Aviation, French Army; attended School for Officers, Fontainebleau; Aspirant July 1918; transf. to Observation for Arty.; 232e Regt. Arty. Corps, 164th Div. 6e Armée; in action at Chemin-des-Dames and Aisne Offensive and in Belgium; awarded Croix de Guerre with Bronze Star, Regimental citation, Order No. 74, Nov. 22, 1918:

"Aspirant américain, engagé dans l'Armée Française pour la durée de la guerre, d'un moral et d'un entrain au-dessus de tout éloge. Arrivé à la Batterie, sur la Vesle, a secondé de tous les moyens le Commandant de Batterie et particulièrement dans les Flandres."

Sous-Lieut. Jan. 1919; disch. in Jan.; returned to U.S. Mar. 13, 1919.



Sailed from New York to Bordeaux June 2, 1917; in Section 66, Amer. Field Serv. in France June 15-Sept. 10; served as Pvt. 1st cl. in S.S.U. 623, U.S.A. Amb. Serv. with French Army Sept. 10, 1917-Mar. 9, 1919; Hurtebise (Chemin-des-Dames) July 8-31, 1917; Craonne (Chemin-des-Dames) Aug. 25-Sept. 22 and Oct. 20-30; Pinon (Chemin-des-Dames) Nov. 25-Dec. 20, 1917 and Jan. 7-May 27, 1918; bronchitis French Military Hosp. Soissons Jan. 7-22, 1918; Aisne Defensive May 27-June; Laffaux; Baccarat June 15-July 17; Lunéville July 18Sept. 3, Champagne Offensive Sept.-Oct.; Champagne Sept. 26-Oct. 7; influenza, pneumonia French Military Hosp. Ecole de Santé at Lyons Oct. 7-Nov. 25; Convalescent Hosp. Paris Nov. 25, 1918-Jan. 8, 1919; awarded Croix de Guerre with Divisional citation under order No. 12, 61st French Div. dated Jan. 12:

"Venu en France, comme volontaire. A toujours montré un zèle et un dévouement les plus absolus. A participé à toutes les opérations dans lesquelles la Division s'est trouvée engagée depuis Décembre 1917. Pendant l'avance française de Champagne (Octobre-Novembre 1918), s'est fait remarquer par son courage et son entrain. Atteint de maladie n'en a pas moins continué à assurer son service et n'a consenti à se faire évacuer que sur l'ordre de ses chefs."

Army of Occupation at Luxembourg with 61st French Div.; attended Univ. of Caen Mar. 9 July 1; disch. at Gièvres July 5; returned to New York Aug. 21, 1919.



Sailed from New York to Bordeaux Aug. 3, 1917; enlisted as Pvt. in U.S.A. Amb. Serv. with French Army Sept. 2, 1917; attached to S.S.U. 639 until Nov. 1918; Amb. Driver until Jan. 1918; Lance Corp. until Apr.; Sgt. in Apr.; automobile school of French Army at Montereau-sur-Seine June 10-Aug. 9; 1st Lieut. U.S.A. Amb. Serv. Sept. 8, 1918; at front with French Army: St. Quentin Aug. 19-Oct. 30, 1917; Suippes, Champagne Nov. 1, 1917-Mar. 9, 1918; Lassigny-Montdidier Apr.-May 31; Verdun Aug. 19-Sept. 12; Séchault, Argonne Oct.-Nov. 6, Nancy Nov. 9-11: after Armistice: Saverne, Alsace Nov. 1828; C.O. of S.S.U. 633, Dec. 1, 1918-Jan. 15, 1919; Sedan-Mézières Dec. 2, 1918-Jan. 15, 1919; U.S.A. Amb. Serv. Hq. Paris with Prov. Bn. and Reserve Force Jan. 15-Apr. 25 when disch. at St. Aignan, France; returned to New York June 5, 1919.



Sailed for France in Feb. 1917; Section 16, Amer. Field Serv. attached to French Army in Argonne Forest at front Mar.-Sept.; returned to New York Nov. 1, 1917; Gas Defense Plant, U.S.A. Long Island City, N. Y. Mar. 2-July 1918; Corp. San. Corps June 11; Army Piers, Hoboken in July; Corp. C.W.S. Aug. 1; Sgt. C.W.S. Nov. 1; disch. Feb. 18, 1919.



Enlisted as Pvt. in Amer. Field Serv. Section 8, July 1917; sailed from New York to Liverpool July 11; enlisted at Ste. Menehould, France, in Amer. Amb. Serv. Section 628 (when Field Serv. was inducted into A.E.F.) Sept. 1917; attached to 169th Div. French Army in Argonne, Champagne, Somme and Oise Sectors; awarded Croix de Guerre, Regimental citation, Order No. 784, Apr. 30, 1918:

"A la suite d'un long et violent bombardement par obus toxiques, a fait preuve, le 28 Avril 1918, dun allant, d'un sang-froid et d'un dévouement inlassables dans l'accomplissement de son service."

Four weeks in hosp. at Angers with rheumatism Nov.-Dec. 1918; returned to Hoboken Mar. 27, 1919; disch. Camp Dix, N.J. Apr. 4, 1919; Member of French War Veterans.



Enlisted in Amer. Amb. Serv. Oct. 20, 1916; reached Bordeaux Nov. 1916; served in Albania, Serbia, Macedonia until July 1917; transf. to U.S.A. Amb. Serv. and commissioned 1st Lieut. Nov. 15, 1917; C. O. Section 634 U.S.A. Amb. Serv. attached to 3rd Div. French Army and later to 53rd Div. French Army; in Verdun, Champagne, Somme Defensive and Meuse-Argonne Offensive; cited in Order No. 230, 3rd Div. French Inf. May 25, 1918:

"Autant dans les Secteurs de la Côte 394 et d'Avocourt que dans le Secteur actuel, la Section Sanitaire Américaine 63 sous l'énergique impulsion de son Chef le Lieutenant Bruce McClure, a toujours accompli avec entrain, bravoure et une abnégation absolue sa tâche souvent périlleuse."

Awarded Croix de Guerre with Divisional citation, Order No. 13.023 "D" French Armies of the East Jan. 22, 1919:

"Pendant les combats d'Octobre 1918, a assuré d'une façon parfaite le fonctionnement de sa section, donnant le meilleur exemple à ses hommes par son séjour presque permanent aux points de chargement les plus dangereux, et réussissant, malgré un bombardement intense, à enlever tous les blessés dans les meilleures conditions dc rapidité."

With French Army of Occupation until Mar. 6; returned to Hoboken Apr. 20; disch. Apr. 22, 1919.



In Amer. Field Serv. in France June 1915-Sept. 1917; enlisted in U.S. Amb. Serv. with French Army Sept. 7; promoted from Pvt. to Pvt. 1st cl., to Corp.; attached to S.S.U. 70, S.S.U. 18, S.S.U. 636; at front in attack on Ft. Malmaison, Chemin-des-Dames Oct. 23-27, 1917; counter-attack Villers-Cotterêts Forest June 3-July 10, 1918; counter-offensive below Soissons July 18-Aug. 5, 1918; awarded Croix de Guerre with Regimental citation Mar. 3, 1919, Order No. 13.977 "D", Hq. French Armies of the East:

"Très bon conducteur, d'un courage et d'un dévouemeut remarquables, a transporté dans la nuit du 6 Juin, des blessés malgré un bombardement violent."

Assigned to School Detachment Univ. of Dijon; landed at Hoboken July 19, 1919; disch. July 25, 1919.



Enlisted in Amer. Field Serv. June 2, 1917 and served with 42nd Div. Alpin Chasseurs, French Army, on Aisne Front until Dec. 1, 1917. Returned to U.S. and enlisted as Pvt. in 358th Aero Sq. Aviation Section, Signal Corps July 5, 1918; Air Serv. Mechanics' Training School, St. Paul, Minn.; Standard Aircraft Corporation, Elizabeth, N. J.; Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Aberdeen, Md.; Hazlehurst Field, Mineola, L. I.; disch. Feb. 13, 1919.



Sailed from New York May 5, 1917 in Amer. Field Serv. Section 27; attached to 132nd Div. French Inf.; section later transf. to U.S. Army Amb. Serv.; 1st Lieut. U.S.A.A.S. Feb. 1918; in Champagne Defensive July 14-18, 1918; Oise-Aisne Offensive; Ypres-Lys Offensive; Division citation awarding Croix de Guerre with Silver Star, Order No. 210, 132nd Div. Aug. 24, 1917:

'Volontaire Américain, excellent conducteur, s'est toujours distingué par son sang-froid et son courage, en particulier dans la nuit du 8 au 9 août, alors qu'un obus était tombé sur des troupes en relève, tuant ou blessant un certain nombre de militaires, n'a pas hésité à se précipiter malgré le bombardement pour coopérer au sauvetage des blessés faisant ainsi preuve d'un bel esprit d'abnégation et de sacrifice."

Second citation, Croix de Guerre, Order No. 10887 "D", G.H.Q. French Armies of the North and Northeast, Oct. 25, 1918:

"Sous les ordres du Lieutenant Américain Lars Potter et du Sous Lieutenant J. Jordan de la Passardière, a, pendant l'attaque du 15 au 18 Juillet 1918, assure avec la plus grande bravoure et un mépris absolu du danger dans des circonstances particulièrement difficiles, l'évacuation des blessés de la Division, donnant des preuves d'un inlassable courage et d'un remarquable esprit de corps."

Returned to New York June 4, 1919; disch. June 12, 1919.



Enlisted as Pvt. in Amer. Field Serv. June 20, 1917; sailed from New York to Bordeaux Tune 25; Hq. Section June-Sept.; disch. Sept. 15; returned to U.S. Oct. 12, 1917. Entered service in A.R.C. June 15, 1918; sailed June 16; Aide to Commissioner for France, A.R.C. June-Nov. 1918; Capt. A.R.C. Oct. 31, 1918; Secretary-Interpreter, Balkan Mission Nov. 1918-Feb. 1919; received decoration of Commander of the Order of St. Sava (Serbia) Jan. 5, 1919; Liaison Officer League of Red Cross Societies after Feb.; disch. Sept. 20; returned to U.S. Oct. 9, 1919.



Enlisted in Amer. Field Serv. and sailed from New York to Bordeaux May 19, 1917; in camion service Transport Militaire Unité 133 with French Army near Soissons, Fismes, along Aisne River and near Chemin-des-Dames May 30-Sept. 12 during part of period as Acting Section Chief; assigned to French Automobile Officers' Training School, Maux Sept. 1917 but instead joined Bat. F, 6th F.A. 1st Div. in Oct.; U.S.A. Arty. Training Camp, Valdahon in Oct.; commissioned 2nd Lieut. F.A., (J S.A. as of Aug. 20, 1917; in action: Lorraine Sector in Nov.; Gondrecourt winter of 1917-1918; Toul Sector early spring 1918; Cantigny Sector in Apr.; assigned to Bat. E, 6th A. in Apr.; slightly gassed in Mar. near Beaumont and in hosp. three days; ordered to U.S. May 6; reached Hoboken May 30; F.A.R.D. Camp Jackson, S. C. June 18July 31; Co. C, 9th Ammunition Train, 9th Div. Camp McClellan, Ala. Aug. 1918-Jan. 1919; disch. Jan. 21, 1919.



Enlisted in Amer. Field Serv. with French Army May 1917; at various French Training Camps; amb. driver in Section 68 at Chemin-des-Dames and Champagne June-Oct.; sailed from Bordeaux in Oct. and disch. Nov. 1, 1917. Enlisted in T.C., U.S.A. Feb. 1918; Gettysburg, Penn. for seven months, in hosp. greater part of the time; disch. Sept. 1918.



Camion Driver with French Army May 26-Nov. 17, 1917; drove ammunition truck in Soissons Sector along the Aisne and Chemin-des-Dames; section cited at taking of Fort de la Malmaison. Returned to U.S. and enlisted as Fireman U.S.N.R.F. June 19. 1918: Great Lakes Naval Training Station, Ill, until Sept.; Naval Section, Williams S.A.T.C. Nov. 11-Dec. 15, 1918.



Served in Amer. Amb. Corps with French Army Jan-July, 1916; with S.S.U. 1 at Vic-sur-Aisne and Courtieux Feb.-Mar. 1916; Moreuil and Cappy on the Somme. Mar.-July; Battle of Somme July 1, 1916. 1st O. T.C. Ft. McPherson, Ga. May 12-Aug. 15, 1917 when commissioned 2nd Lieut.; M.G. Co. and D Co. 327th Inf. and Co. B, 320th M.G. Bn. attached to 152nd D.B.; 1st Lieut. Dec. 31, 1917; sailed from Hoboken Mar. 14, 1919; St. Mihiel in Sept.; Argonne Forest in Oct.; slightly gassed and wounded Oct. 11, 1918; in Field Hosp. 326, A.E.F. and Base 27, Angers; returned to Newport News, Va. Jan. 1, 1919; disch. Jan. 10, 1919.



Sailed for France in Amer. Field Serv. Feb. 19, 1917; enlisted as Pvt. in U.S.A. Amb. Serv. Oct. 12; Sgt. Oct. 13, 1917; served in S.S.U. 15 with 32nd French Div.; at French Officers' Automobile Training School; S.S.U. 15 with 124th French Div.; C.O., S.S.U. 558 with 42nd French Div.; 1st Lieut. U.S.A. Amb. Serv. Jan. 17, 1918; served at: Verdun; Champagne; Lorraine; Somme; Aisne; awarded Croix de Guerre with Silver Star, Divisional citation under order of 32nd French Div.:

"Conducteur, engagé volontaire, a fait en compagnie de son officier les reconnaissances des postes. Sous un violent bombardement le 13 Août 1917 a relevé un de ses camarades blessés et l'a aidé à gagner le poste de secours. Très dévoué, énergique et plein d'entrain. A renouvelé son engagement pour participer à l'attaque et s'est fait remarquer par un dévouement de tous les instants du 20 au 24 Août 1917."

Transf. as 1st Lieut. to Tank Corps, U.S.A. Oct. 25, 1918; in training at time of Armistice; landed in New York Mar. 13, 1919; disch. Mar. 28, 1919.



Enlisted in Amer. Field Serv. with French Army Feb. 19, 1917; sailed that day from New York to Bordeaux; with the French Army north of Verdun in attack on Dead Man's Hill and Hill 304, Aug. 20; awarded Croix de Guerre with citation of Service de Santé, 16th Army Corps Sept. 9:

"Engagé volontaire, a fait avec son Lieutenant le trajet des postes montrant le plus grand sang-froid au moment où l'ennemi cherchait à gêner par un bombardement sérieux la mise en batterie d'une batterie de "75" le long de la route d'évacuation au poste. A passé à travers champs pour arriver plus vite au poste de secours."

Enlisted in U.S.A. Amb. Serv. Sept. 28; Corp. Oct. 10, 1917; S.S.U. 633 with 32nd and 124th French Divs. at Mont Cornillet, Mont Blond, Mont Haut in Champagne Sector; transf. to F.A. May 28, 1918; Saumur Arty. School until Aug. 31 when commissioned 2nd Lieut. F.A.; assigned to Bat. F, 105th F.A. 27th Div.; St. Mihiel Offensive in Sept.; at following points in Meuse-Argonne Offensive Sept.-Nov. 1918: Forges, Forges Wood, Gercourt, Dannevoux, Consenvoye, Bois d'Haumont, Bois d'Ormont, Hill 378, Wavrille, Etraye, Réville; returned to New York Mar. 19, 1919; ditch. Apr. 1, 1919.



Enlisted in Amer. Field Serv. May 26, 1917; sailed that day from New York to Bordeaux; in Section 15 with 32nd Div. French Inf. until Sept. 28; in second Battle of Verdun Aug. 1917; transf. to Section 633, U.S.A. Amb. Serv. attached to 124th Div. French Inf. Sept. 1917; Aisne-Marne Defensive July 15-18, 1918; Argonne-Ardennes Offensive Oct. 1-Nov. 11, 1918; French Army of Occupation Feb. 17-26, 1919; awarded Croix de Guerre with Divisional citation in G.O. 184, 124th Div. French Inf. Apr. 18, 1918:

"Engagé volontaire américain a toujours fait preuve du plus grand courage, toujours volontaire pour effectuer les évacuations les plus périlleuses, s'est distingué notamment: le 20 Août 1917 au Poste 232, le 19 Décembre 1917 en se portant volontairement au secours d'un de ses camarades atteint par les gaz et dont la voiture était tombée dans un trou d'obus, et pendant le bombardement du secteur par obus toxiques les 12 et 23 Mars 1918, a assuré pendant ces deux jours le plus grand nombre d'évacuations."

Corp. Mar. 1919; landed in Hoboken Apr. 23; disch. Apr. 26, 1919.


1. Announcement of the Institute of Politics.

2. Round-Table Conferences of the Institute of Politics at Its First Session, 1921, pp. 7ff.

3. The Institute of Politics Publications, First Session, 1921; Lectures on International Relations by Viscount Bryce, pp. 262 ff.

4. Round-Table Conferences of the Institute of Politics at Its First Sesssion, 1921, pp. 439 ff.

Roster extracted from:

History of the American Field Service in France. "Friends of France". 1914-1917. Told by its Members with Illustrations. Boston and New York. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1920.

Adriance, Edwin Holmes, Cdt. Adjt. T.M.U. 133


Englewood N.J. 1914, p301 Capt. U.S.F.A.
Atwell, Charles Albert. Jr. T.M.U. 526


Sewickley Pa 1917, p359 Cadet U.S. Av.
Bass, John Foster, Jr. Hdqts.


Chicago Ill. 1920. p425 2nd Lt. U.S. Av.
Belden, Arthur Bevan S.S.U. 72


Marceline N.Y. 1913, p283 2nd Lt. U.S.M.T.C.
Blodgett, Richard Ashley T.M.U. 526


W. Newton Mass. 1919, p133 1st Lt. U.S. Av.
Boardman, Derick Lane S.S.U. 08


Troy N.Y. 1919, p405   U.S.A.A.S. - U.S. Art.
Brown, McClary Hazelton S.S.U. 15


Scottsville N.Y. 1918, p383   U.S.A.A.S.
Clark, William Dearborn S.S.U. 15


San Francisco Cal. 1916, p343   U.S.A.A.S.
Coan, Howard Radcliffe S.S.U. 27


Minneapolis Minn. 1921, p449   Y.M.C.A.
Collier, Christopher Walter Hdqts.


Lexington Mass. 1892, p165   Y.M.C.A.
Crew, Gerald Eugene Hdqts.


Williamstown Mass. Williams, n/r Asp. Fr. Art.
Curtis, Edward Peck † S.S.U. 15


Rochester N.Y. 1918, p385 1st Lt. U.S. Av.
Dawson, Benjamin Frederick † S.S.U. 03


Philadelphia Pa. 1908, p227 Capt. U.S. Av.
Elmore, Earle Phillips S.S.U. 70


Oneonta N.Y. 1919, p409   U.S.A.A.S. -2nd Lt. U.S.F.A.
Gilger, Lewis Chapman S.S.U. 69


Norwalk Ohio 1915, p329 1st Lt. U.S.M.T.C.
Hall, Charles Blake † S.S.U. 29


New York City N.Y. 1915, p329    
Howe, Julian Bigelow Vosges Det


Princeton N.J. 1908, p229 S/Lt. Fr. Art.
Howland, Frederick Arthur S.S.U. 66


Hudson Falls N.Y. 1919, p413   U.S.A.A.S.
Jewett, Robert Rollin S.S.U. 72


Skeneateles N.Y. 1914, p309 1st Lt. U.S.A.A.S.
Kingsbury, Frederick John, Jr. S.S.U. 16


New Haven Conn. 1919, p415 Sgt. U.S. Chem.W.S.
Lewine, ArchibaldE. S.S.U. 08


New York City N.Y. 1911, p263   U.S.A.A.S.
McClure, Bruce Holme, Cdt. Adjt. S.S.U. 10 -33-16


Yonkers N.Y. 1914, p311 1st Lt. U.S.A.A.S.
Nash, Edwin Gates S.S.U. 70


Burlington Vt. 1915, p335   U.S.A.A.S.
Parry, Edward Howland S.S.U. 66


Glens Falls N.Y. 1919, p419   U.S. Av.
Potter, Lars Sellstedt † S.S.U. 27


Buffalo N.Y. 1910, p251 1st Lt. U.S.A.A.S.
Pumpelly, Lawrence Hdqts.


Ithaca N.Y. 1902, p195   A.R.C.
Redfield, Edward Griswold T.M.U. 133


Hartford Conn. 1918, p399 1st Lt. U.S.F.A.
Smith, Cedric Ellsworth S.S.U. 68


Brooklyn N.Y. 1920, p443   U.S. Tank C.
Tatem, Joseph Moore T.M.U. 133


Haddonfield N.J. 1920, p443   U.S. Navy
Underhill, John Griffen S.S.U. 01


Oswego N.Y. 1918, p401 1st Lt. U.S. Inf.
Van Alstyne, David, Jr., Sous-Chef † S.S.U. 15


New York City N.Y. 1918, p403 1st Lt. U.S.A.A.S.
Weeks, Francis Darling † S.S.U. 15


Dorchester Mass. 1917, p377   U.S.A.A.S.
Young, Robert Gordon S.S.U. 15


Minneapolis Minn. 1917, p379   U.S.A.A.S.