SCIENCE AND LEARNING IN FRANCE

WITH A SURVEY OF OPPORTUNITIES
FOR AMERICAN STUDENTS IN
FRENCH UNIVERSITIES
AN APPRECIATION

BY

AMERICAN SCHOLARS

THE SOCIETY FOR
AMERICAN FELLOWSHIPS IN FRENCH UNIVERSITIES

1917

TO
THE SCHOLARS OF FRANCE
WORTHY CUSTODIANS
OF THEIR COUNTRY'S INTELLECTUAL GREATNESS
THIS VOLUME
PREPARED IN A TIME
WHEN FRANCE HAS REACHED
THE HEIGHTS OF MORAL GREATNESS
IS OFFERED
WITH HEARTFELT ADMIRATION AND SYMPATHY
IN THE NAME OF
THE SCHOLARS OF AMERICA

 

PREFACE

Our purpose in this volume is, primarily, to put before the American public the contributions of France in all fields of scientific knowledge, and to show her status in the forefront of the world's progress; and, in addition, to furnish to American university students all information bearing on graduate work in France.

Each chapter sets forth briefly, for a particular field:

1. The record of French scholarship during the past century; the notable achievements; the eminent leaders; the special lines of development; in general, the share of France in the world's progress;

2. The courses of instruction given, now or recently, at the universities of France, particularly at the University of Paris; the names of the most important scholars, with mention of their principal contributions and of the special fields of research over which they preside;

3. The facilities available for study and research, including the libraries, laboratories, archives, and museums, the auxiliary institutes, special schools, and learned societies and committees.

There is also:

An Introduction, describing the general intellectual spirit of France and Paris, and the interest and attractions that capital and country offer to the foreign scholar; and

An Appendix, describing the organization of French universities, the standards of preparation expected of the student, the system of degrees, the customs as to residence and attendance, the regulations as to fees and the like; and other facts useful to the visiting student.

The book has been made possible by the liberality of the Society for American Fellowships in French Universities, which has borne all the expense of publication.

The ultimate and cardinal mission of the book will be an act of homage to French science. Let the scholars of France know that their American colleagues are eager to pay this just tribute! The great place of France in the world of knowledge---the place that it always has held and always will hold---can never be forgotten by their debtors on this side of the ocean.

The men who wrote this book are qualified to speak on their subjects; a glance at their names will show that their word is decisive. They represent American scholarship. They have spoken frankly, sincerely, and judicially, without reserve or exaggeration.

Their message goes out to the American people. May it convey some fresh light to our fellow-countrymen, and help to fix in their conviction the true status of French learning in the world!

This book was planned and begun towards the end of the year 1915; and in presenting it now, when the bonds of mutual esteem and gratitude between France and America have been drawn even more closely, the Authors believe that they are not only pointing the youth of our country to splendid sources of knowledge and wisdom, but are also serving, in the measure of their ability, to strengthen and confirm that comradeship of scholars which symbolizes the enduring friendship of the two nations.

June, 1917.

THE EDITOR.


CONTENTS

List of Authors
List of Sponsors

INTRODUCTION

The Mind of France
The Intellectual Inspiration of Paris

ANTHROPOLOGY
ARCHAEOLOGY and HISTORY OF ART
ASTRONOMY
BOTANY and AGRICULTURE
CHEMISTRY
CRIMINOLOGY
EDUCATION
ENGINEERING
GEOGRAPHY
GEOLOGY---Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Palaeontology
HISTORY
LAW
MATHEMATICS
MEDICINE---Introductory Survey, Physiology, Neurology, Medicine, Surgery, Pathology
PHILOLOGY---Classical Romance, Oriental, Semitic, English .
PHILOSOPHY
PHYSICS
POLITICAL SCIENCE---including Economics and International Law
PSYCHOLOGY
RELIGION
SOCIOLOGY
ZOOLOGY

APPENDIX I:

Educational Advantages for American Students in France; with a History of the Recent Changes in its University System

APPENDIX II:

Institutions of Higher Learning; their Organization, Degrees, Requirements, Fees, etc.

APPENDIX III:

Practical Suggestions to the Intending Graduate Student


 Introduction