IT WAS NO LIGHT decision to close down the Unit's work. And yet it was inevitable. The decision was made, and by the end of June 1946 all that remained of the work described in these pages had been transferred to other auspices. A small group of members was to stay on at Headquarters to wind up the Unit's affairs.

When the war ended in the early summer of 1945 the Unit still had before it a crowded year of work. But already the question was being asked how long it should, or could, last. The Unit had been started with the war to provide for young pacifists as constructive and exacting a job as possible. It was a measure of its success that in the minds of its members the emphasis soon shifted from any thought of alternative service to the importance and urgency of the tasks that lay before them, and that the Unit grew into a voluntary relief organization which in Europe alone, to say nothing of its work on other continents, operated on a scale second only to the Red Cross.

But the fact remained that the majority of the members, who had left their normal work or courses of training in order to join the Unit, wished to return to them when they were free to do so. Many had still to prepare themselves for their life's work, whatever it might be. Nor could work on a maintenance basis continue indefinitely for men who were now six years older than they were in 1939.

There were two main considerations for those who, in the course of 1945, had to make the decision about the Unit's future. First there was the work itself. Distress and suffering were far from being at an end with the close of the actual fighting. But in many countries the nature of the work was changing. Pioneer "first aid" relief of the type which the Unit was most qualified to undertake was giving way to social welfare work which could best be handled by indigenous organizations. If foreign workers remained, they should be experienced individuals with some particular contribution to make to the work of reconstruction. So in some countries emergency work came naturally and rightly to an end, in others the interests of the work were served by the Unit handing it over. In fact the decision to do so had been taken in many countries without reference to the future of the Unit itself.

The second consideration was the Unit's own membership. There was much speculation about Government plans for the release of conscientious objectors long before a detailed scheme was brought before Parliament towards the end of 1945. Meanwhile Unit policy was framed on the assumption that the scheme would be similar to that for the Armed Forces, based on a combination of age and length of service; that the older and more experienced members would be the first to go; and that numbers would dwindle rapidly in the first half of 1946. The assumption was right. The Bill, when it became law in March 1946, laid down that conscientious objectors should be released by groups, each group as soon as possible after the closing date for the corresponding group in the Army. Length of service was to be measured from the date of each man's Tribunal hearing. The debate on the Second Reading in the House of Commons developed largely into a eulogy of the Unit's work, though Unit members were the first to deprecate any distinction between themselves and their fellow pacifists.

With work being closed down and numbers dwindling, it was above all important that the Unit should not shuffle along to an untidy end. Its last few months would have to be carefully planned. And so it was that after much discussion and much heart-searching the decision was made that the F.A.U. of the Second World War should come to an end on 30th June 1946.

But that was not the whole story. Many of the Unit's younger members would not be released by 30th June. Nor was it known how long conscription would continue. It was no part of the Unit's policy to facilitate peacetime conscription by providing a convenient form of alternative service. On the other hand there was every likelihood that for a transitional period the wartime National Service Acts would continue to operate before any decision was made on a permanent peacetime policy. There was no reason why young pacifists making their stand against the same Acts should be denied the same opportunity of service that the Unit had offered during the war.

That was the dilemma. On the one hand there was no desire in the Unit to make plans which would imply the acceptance of peacetime conscription; on the other hand there were still young pacifists who looked for an organization with the outlook and tradition of the Unit. The issues involved were discussed at length by the Council and Executive Committee, by Staff Meeting, by a Conference that was specially convened and in turn begat a "Successor Body" Committee. The upshot was the formation of "Friends Ambulance Unit Post-War Service" to make provision for the period of transition; further decisions would have to be taken in the light of events.

F.A.U. Post-War Service was to be a distinct organization, although ultimate responsibility for it was to be borne by the existing Council augmented by the addition of a dozen men who had served in the wartime Unit.

Early in 1946 the F.A.U. was asked to provide a team of men to work with Norwegian and Swedish and Danish Friends in Finmark, in Northern Norway, where thousands of houses had been destroyed by the Germans. It was an obvious opening for Post-War Service, which was even then struggling to its birth. The F.A.U. therefore initiated the work with two teams of its own members, twenty-one in all, and in due course handed the administration over to Post-War Service. The story of Finmark will undoubtedly be told elsewhere. Suffice it to say here that the wheel had come full cycle. Scandinavia was the scene of the Unit's first enterprise in 1940 ; it was the scene of its last in 1946. In Norway the new team was able to make use of a bank balance which had been hastily abandoned by its predecessor six years before.

The work of the Unit in Europe and the Far East was carried on with little curtailment until the early spring of 1946. Thereafter in Europe the tale was one of transfers and closures, of repatriation and release. The majority of members left to return to the offices and factories and shops and universities from which they had originally come. But not far short of half the eight hundred who were still members in the first half of 1945 joined other relief or welfare organizations, the majority being transferred with the work which they were doing. The table shows the allocation:

  U.N.R.R.A. - - -


  Friends Relief Service (mainly Germany and Austria)


  Friends Service Council (mainly India)


  American Friends Service Committee (mainly China)


  British Red Cross


  International Voluntary Service for Peace


  American Relief for France


  F.A.U. Post-War Service






Many of these members would have had to leave the Unit for financial reasons; their transference to other bodies enabled them to continue on relief work where it was still needed. Thus experience gained in the Unit was not lost.

And of those who came home many had the course of their lives changed by their years of service in the F.A.U. Horizons had been broadened, new interests and new concerns aroused. Many abandoned their pre-war occupations in favour of work that seemed to them socially more constructive. To help those who needed training for work for which their life in the Unit had shown them suitable, those whose health had suffered, those who had been victimized for their views and had no work to which to return, those whose education had been interrupted by the war, the Members' Assistance Fund was built up until a sum of £7,000 was available for educational grants. Such assistance was invaluable to many who, while in the Unit, were able to make no provision for themselves.

It was no easy task for, the administration to close down the Unit so that the interests neither of the work nor of individual members were forgotten, but it was successfully accomplished by the end of June, the date which had been suggested nine months before.


LIKE ITS PREDECESSOR of the First World War, the F.A.U. of the Second World War is at an end. Some of its traditions are carried on by Post-War Service. For the rest, Unit members will be scattered, some to work with other relief organizations all over the world, the majority to re-enter the arena of normal life at home in Britain.

Already, for us who were its members, the Unit begins to recede into the past. Some day we may perhaps see it in its true perspective, but in 1946 we, like the rest of mankind, are too close to the tremendous events of the war years to see aright the Unit's place in the pattern. Indeed, it will never be possible for us who served in the Unit to view it dispassionately from without. It was not a mere interruption of a few years in our normal existence. The Unit has become woven into the fabric of our lives.

No doubt all that was said so often in Unit publications was true. The Unit at its best demonstrated the value of a voluntary group within society, however highly organized for total war; enthusiasm, adaptability, imagination to see the need---such were the qualities expected of it. It found that when it was true to its ideal of disinterested service it secured a ready response among the common people of the world, whether in the shelters of East London or the clinics of Syria and Ethiopia, in the famine canteens of Bengal, on the roads of China or in the refugee camps of Europe. Sometimes there were gratifying signs that good-will can still break down prejudice and animosity in situations of political or social or religious conflict. At its best it showed that pacifism does not mean anarchy, that a pacifist group can impose upon itself a discipline not based on sanctions but on the ready co-operation of each individual member in promoting the purpose which the group has set itself. Increasingly too it learnt the importance of training. Nor should it be forgotten that the very existence of a body like the Unit was a tribute to the essential tolerance and broad-mindedness of the British people and its Government even in the darkest days of war; to many foreigners it was surprising that such a body could exist at all. And to members of the Unit it was often surprising that they rarely met with anything but courtesy and helpfulness when dealing with those in authority, whether they were Government or local officials or Army officers.

The truth of all this, and more, was tested in the Unit's experience. But as the years roll on much that is now vivid in the mind will be forgotten. We shall forget the sharp details of the picture. We shall forget many of the failures---for failures there were, obvious to anyone who has read the Unit's story---our disappointment with ourselves, who professed so much and rarely came up to our professions, our inability to make the corporate life of the Unit something of which we could at all times be proud.

But when much of the rest is forgotten, what shall we still remember ? Hard work and effort and experiment in a cause which we knew to be right, with a clear purpose and an urgent job directly concerned with the service of our fellow men. However long the periods of inactivity and uncertainty, of frustration and dismay, there can have been few members of the Unit who were not at some time or other during those war years confronted with a challenge of overwhelming urgency which taxed their resources to the uttermost. As pacifists we were on our mettle, and we had work which we knew was worth the effort. And most of all we shall remember the joy and strength of friendship, the confidence which arose from the knowledge that we were not alone. The effort was the Unit's, and we were part of it. We were brought together by circumstance, parted seven years later by circumstance, but while we were in the Unit we were members one of another in a way which few of us had previously experienced.

So the Unit is not dead. It endures, and will endure, in the lives of all who learnt through it the meaning of comradeship and service.






The following were members of the F.A.U. Council for all or part of the period of the war:

Paul S. Cadbury, Chairman
Arnold S. Rowntree, Deputy Chairman
Basil Priestman, F.I.A.
Joseph A. Gillett, F.C.A
Joint Hon. Treasurers
Horace G. Alexander, M.A.
Margaret Backhouse
F. Ralph Barlow,
Edward Cadbury, J.P., LL.D.
John W. Cadbury III, B.SC.
Edgar B. Castle, M.A.
E. St. John Catchpool
A. Tegla Davies, M.A.
Julian P. Fox
Leslie H. Gilbert, M.A., F.R.A.I.
*Donald Gray, M.A.
John W. Harvey, M.A.
T. Edmund Harvey, M.A.
J. Oliver Holdsworth
Ronald A. Joynes
Eric I. Lloyd, M.A., F.R.C.S.
Leslie B. Maxwell, O.B.E., M.B., B.CH.
Patrick H. Midgley, M.B., CH.B.

William Mordey
Andrew J. Morland, M.D., F.R.C.P.
Sir George Newman, G.B.E., K.C.B., M.D.
Humphrey Nockolds, D.S.O., F.R.C.S.
Philip J. Noel Baker, M.A., M.P.
A. E. L. Parnis, B.SC.ECON.
John H. Robson
Hubert Ll. Rutter, M.B.E., M.D., F.R.C.S.
W. Farley Rutter
Herbert G. Tanner
*Thomas L. Tanner, B.A.
Meaburn Tatham, O.B.E., M.A.
J. Michael Vaizey, M.D., M.R.C.P.
Harold Watts
Maurice Webb
Henry L. Wilson, M.D., F.R.C.P., D.P.M.
Eileen Younghusband

* Deceased




The following list contains the names of those who between 1939 and 1946 served as full members of the F.A.U. For those who served in the early days, before a probationary period of at least six weeks became the rule, a minimum of two months' service qualifies for inclusion in the list.

Before a name: * died while serving with the Unit.
  known to have died after leaving the Unit.
After a name: A American.
  C Canadian.
  NZ New Zealander.
    Other non-British nationalities are given in full.
Women who married while in the Unit are shown thus:
  Alexander, Harriet J née Brown
Women known to have married after leaving the Unit are shown thus:
  Tarr, Barbara H. now Wilkinson


Abbott, Edwin V. (C)
Abley, Cyril G.
Adams, Annabel
†Adams, R. Hugh
Adams, Steven H.
Adamson, Helen F.
Adamson, John F.
Addey, John M.
Agnew, Fulque M.
Aiers, Oliver G.
Aked, George D. (Pat)
*Alderson, Raymond P. (Nik)
Aldous, Kenneth
Alexander, Harriet J. (C) née Brown
Alexander, Kenneth E.
Alexander, Walter J. (C)
Alexandre, J. Clement
Allan, Alexander M.
Allcott, Armel E.
Allen, Margaret E. now Turner
Allison, Malcolm S.
Allt, Anthony H.
Andrews, John H. (Donald)
Angus, Ralph G.
Ankers, Eric G.
Archer, H. Courtney (NZ)
Ardern, Joseph M.
Armstrong, Anthony
Armstrong, Elaine
Armstrong, Patrick N.
Arnison, Ian L.
Arnold, Maurice A.
Arnold, Ralph H.
Arthur, Robert S.
Ash, Raymond J.
Asquith, Michael H.
Atkins, James H.
Atkinson, Arthur C.
Atkinson, Ronald F.
August, Denis A. P. (Mike)
Awmack, Joseph W. (C)
Ayliffe, Lionel G.


Backhouse, Edward
Bader, Godric E. S.
Bagenal, H. Michael
Bailey, Allan C.
Bailey, Edna G.
Bailey, J. E. Brenda née Friedrich
Bailey, John C.
Bailey, Maurice H.
Bailey, Sydney D.
Baker, Albert A. W.
Baker, Cyril H.
Baker, Laurence W.
Baker, Peter N.
Baker, Sheila
Balkwill, Roger L.
Bamford, Joan M. B. née Hilling
Bamford, John N.
Bamford, Peter B.
Bankart, Pamela
Barber, Christopher B.
Bardwell, R. Michael
Barford, D. James
Barker, Eric
Barker, Eric Ernest
Barlow, Dudley J.
Barlow, F. Ralph
Barnard, Clifford
Barnard, Harold F.
Barnes, John D.
Barnes, Leslie
Barnes, William P. W.
Barns, H. Norman
Barnsley, Thomas E.
Barr, Arthur N. (A)
Barr, Patrick D.
Barritt, Howard J.
Bather, John A. (A)
Bayston, Betty
Beach, Kay (A)
Beamer, William F.
Beards, John R.
Beck, H. Russell (C)
Beckett, H. Samuel
Beckett, Oliver
Beer, Ernest O.
Begbie, G. Hugh
Bell, Colin W.
Bell, Samuel A.
Belleini, Frank
Benjamin, Ellis R.
Bennett, Kenneth A.
Berry, Denstone (Dennis)
Beshears, R. Mansfield (A)
Betterton, Stanley T.
†Bills, Bernard W.
Birkett, J. Raymond
Bishop, Keith R.
Bisson, E. Kenneth C.
Bithell, Ronald I.
Blackaby, Frank T.
Blake, J. Alan
Blick, William L.
Boas, S. Carel
Bolam, J. G. Norman
Bollam, Raymond
Bone, Brian F.
Boning, Harold L.
Boning, Robert O.
Bonsall, Geoffrey W.
Bonsall, Leonard D.
Booth, Arnold
*Booth, Norman L.
*Bough, John C.
Bourke, Kenneth A. F.
Bowers, David A.
Bowes, J. Norman
Bowkett, Norman T.
Boxall, Robert A.
*Boyd, Quentin D.
Boyes, Norman D.
Boyle, Ralph H.
Boyt, Oliver
Bradford, Robert K.
Bradshaw, John C. (A)
Braid, Andrew F.
Braid, Leatrice
Bratt, Clive C.
Bretherton, W. Alan
Brewer, John R.
Bridge, Frank H. S.
*Briggs, John S.
Brittle, Ronald W.
Brock, Peter de B.
Brook, C. Ian
Broomfield, Maurice W.
Brough, William
Brown, E. Kenneth
Brown, George W. (C)
Brown, Harold G.
Brown, Hugh S.
Brown, Ivor C.
Brown, John (Bode)
Brown, John A.
Brown, Joyce W.
Brown, Michael Barratt
Brown, Norman J. P.
Brown, Percy A. A.
Brown, Peter D.
Brown, Robert W.
Brown, William
Brown, William Robert
Brownless, Kenneth
Bruce, Alexander P.
Bruce, Robert R. F.
Brunton, James
Bryant, Edward W.
Buchanan, Archibald
Bucknall, Alfred
Budden, Julian M.
Budgen, Henrietta C. S.
Bullock, Ernest R.
Bullock, J. Dennis
Bullock, Richard W.
Bungey, Timothy J.
Burden, Mary J. H.
Burdon, Richard H.
Burgess, Geoffrey H. O.
Burgess, John F. O.
Burgess-Smith, Elliot
Burley, Stafford D.
Burnell, Edward G.
Burns, Thomas
Burrows, David G.
Burt, Thomas S.
Burtt, Brian R.
Burtt, Edmund T.
Burtt, E. Mary
Burtt, John O.
Busby, Hubert G.
Butler, Edward B. (A)
Butler, Leslie W.
Butterworth, John
Bywood, Frank


Cadbury, Antony H.
Cadbury, Brandon
Cadbury, Charles L.
Cadbury, Edward P.
Cadbury, Michael H.
Cadoux, Harold J.
Cadoux, Lilian V. née Humble
Cadoux, Theodore J.
Cameron, Sheila now Cullum
Campbell, Harry
Candlin, Dorothy (A)
Carmichael, David D.
Carter, Francis C. (Frank)
Carter, Olive J. (Susie)
Carter, P. Leonard
Carter, Sydney B. R.
Carter, W. Gregory
Cartner, John
Catchpool, John F. (Frank)
Cathie, Cameron
Caton, John P.
Catterall, R. Duncan
Caulkin, Annette M. née Cooper
†Caulkin, David H.
Chalkley, Douglas E.
Champion, George H.
Chapman, Arthur E.
Chapman, Howard D. (C)
Chapman, W. Ronald
Chase, G. Richard H.
Cheston, Arthur G.
Child, W. Alan
Chin, Wesley S. C. (A)
Chirgwin, Eric G.
Chisholm-Batten, Walter R.
Clapp, Edward G.
Clark, Bronson (A)
Clarke, John B.
Clarke, Leslie R.
Clarkson, Alfred E.
Clarkson, George W. H.
Clewer, H. Dorothy
Clewer, Selby J.
Clifford, Douglas J. (NZ)
Clodd, Harold A. (Alan)
Close, Diana A. now McClelland
Coates, R. Neville
Coburn, C. Oliver L.
Cockings, Kenneth L.
Coggins, Frederick
Coleman, Michael H.
Collins, Geoffrey D.
Collinson, John B.
Compton-Ford, Rupert S.
Condick, Constance née Bull
Condick, Ronald G.
Connelly, Evelyn
Connelly, Ralph S.
Conolly, W. Dennis
Conyers, Elaine E. now Bell
Cook, Robert
Cooke, James A.
Coomber, Edward
Cooper, George F.
Cooper, Giles
Cooper, Harold F.
Cope, Paul M. (A)
Corder, S. Pit
Corsellis, John
Cosford, Brian R.
Cotterill, Geoffrey
Cottrell, Henry F. (Jim)
Couldridge, Leonard W. S.
Court, Joan
Cowen (Cohen), Noel
Cowie, Peter W.
Cowling, Enid L.
Cox, Derek C.
Cox, R. Gordon
Coxe, Spencer L. (A)
Crann, Harry
Crawford, Douglas F. N.
Creighton, John Henry
Croft, George R.
Croft, Paul F.
Crosfield, Edward C.
Crosfield, Michael C.
Crosland, Charles
Cross, G. Leslie
Cross, Joyce M.
Cross, Kathleen M.
Cross, Kenneth W.
Crozier, G. Lindsay (NZ)
Cue, Kenneth H.
Cummings, James
Curtis, David W.
Curtis, G. William
Curtis, H. Arnold
Curwen, C. Anthony


Daily, Wilfred J.
Dancer, F. Brian
Dangerfield, E. Rita now White
Daniel, J. Bert
Daniel, Rachel
Darby, Alfred J.
Darbyshire, Brian
Darling, H. Leonard
Darling, Walter M. (Terry)
Darlington, Arnold
Darroch, Kenneth R.
Darton, E. Lawrence
Daubney, Frederick G.
Davenport, Gordon A.
Davey, Alfred G.
Davies, A. Tegla
Davies, David E.
Davies, Dorothy M. née Hanson
†Davies, G. Kenric
Davies, Leo E.
Davies, Martin B.
Davies, Ralph J.
Davies, Raymond A.
Davies, T. Glanmor
Davies, Winifred
Davis, Allan
Davis, Donald S.
Davis, E. Frank
Davis, Muriel B.
Davis, Ralph H. C.
Deane, Arthur
Dellow, S. Norman
Denison, John D.
Denison, Samuel J. M.
Dennis, Stephen M.
Dick, Oswald H. J.
*Dickinson, Alan R.
Digney, Neil
Dixon, Henry
Dixon, Lewis
Dobbing, John
Dobson, John D. A. (C)
Dodds, John K. (C)
Doggett, Frank G.
Doherty, Minnie
Doré, Louis J.
Dorland, Albert A. (C)
Dorland, J. Terence (C)
Dover, Clarence
Dring, Basil C.
Dromard, Harold E.
Du Boulay, F. Robin
Duck, Kenneth W.
Du Feu, Clifford A. R.
Duffield, James H.
Dukes, J. Marcus C.
Dumville, John H.
Duncumb, Kenneth W.
Dunlop, Dewar P.
Dunn, Clement A.
Dunn, T. Edward
Dunstan, Stephen E.
Dykes, Ivor K.


Eames, Ralph M.
Early, Peter F.
Early, Richard E.
Eastwood, Fred H.
Eckersley, Philip R.
Eddington, John A.
Eden, W. Robin
Edmead, Frank
Edmondson, David L.
Edmondson, G. Andrew
Edwards, Donald G. G.
Edwards, Goronwy (Gron)
Edwards, Ivor
Edwards, Lewis C.
Edwards, Michael
Edwards, Norman W.
Edwards, Richard (A)
Edwards, Richard J.
Edwards, T. James G.
Egerton, Philip W.
Eglon, C. Jack
Elliman, Cyril H.
Elliott, C. Leonard
Ellis, A. Derwent
Ellis, George E.
Ellis, Norman
Ellison, John McK.
Emslie, William M.
England, Edwin V. (Ted)
Escreet, Philip K.
Evans, Christopher (A)
†Evans, Ellis B.
Evans, Ernest (A)
Evans, Evelyn J. née Rogers
Evans, Ivor C.
Evans, J. E. Brian
Evans, Llewelyn
Evans, Owen
Evans, Samuel V.
Evans, W. Rainsford
Eveleigh, John B.
Eveleigh, Michael G. W.
Everett, William G. C.
Ewbank, Margaret
Ewbank, Walter F.
Ewing, Leonard N.


Fairley, Reginald
Fausset, P. Shelley l'A.
Fenn, Raymond W.
Fenwick-Owen, Roderic
Ferguson, Dugald
Fielding, Robert
Fisher, Bernard
Fisher, Ian McL.
Fitch, Edward A.
Fleming, John F.
Flight, Alfred L.
Ford, W. G. Kenneth
Forrest, John S.
Forse, Wilfred H. (Bill)
Foster, Stanley W.
Fox, Michael P.
Foye, William (A)
Frankton, H. Michael
Fransham, Reginald D. (C)
*Frazer, J. Denis
Frazer, John B.
Freer, Allen
French, John D.
Freshwater, John H.
Frone, Dennis W. R.
Frost, Philip J.
Fryer, C. Eric J.
Fuller, Evelyn R.
Fuller, Ronald W. D.


Gaffee, Derek W.
Gairns, Robert C.
Gardiner, Gerald A.
Gardner, Leslie A.
Gargett, Erie S.
Gargett, Valerie née Webb (S. African)
Garretts, Robert
Gaunt, Henry A.
Gawith, Alan R.
Geen, Jack W.
George, E. Glyn
Gerrard, Alexander M.
Ghosh, Sudir (Indian)
Gibson, J. Anthony C.
Gibson, Peter L. Giffard, Colin C.
Gilderdale, Alan D.
Gilderdale, Michael
Gilfoyle, Kenneth
Gill, Cyril H.
Giller, Norman G.
Gillespie, John E.
Gilpin, Bernard
Gladstone-Smith, Peter L.
Glasser, Ralph
Goldie, George N.
Goodbody, Donald C. (Eire)
Goodbody, Ivan M. (Eire)
Goodbody, John G. (Eire)
Goodbourn, Frank H. H.
Goode, Kenneth F.
Gore, Harold
Goss, Jack H. F.
Gough, John S.
Gould, Kenneth J.
Goy, Stanley G.
Gradon, John H. F.
Graham, R. Malcolm
Grainger, Raymond W.
Grant, Kenneth E.
Gravely, A. Donovan
Gravely, Basil P.
Graveson, Alfred H. (Algy)
†Gray, J. Kenneth
Greaves, Alec
Green, Alan A.
Green, Eric F. J.
Green, Harry
Green, Harry C.
Green, Kathleen (C)
Green, Lawrence E.
Green, Paul W.
Green, Stephen H.
Greenhill, Eric H.
Greenough, Harry
Greenwood, Alan S. (George)
Greenwood, A. Denis
Greenwood, Arthur
Gregory, Frank
Griffin, A. G. Kenneth
Griffin, B. Patrick
Griffin, Kenneth
Grimley, Donald H.
Grimwade, John G.
Grimwood, Ernest G. A.
Groves, I. Brian
Grubb, Jean M. née Turner
Grunwell, Jack
Gunn, Robert B. C.


Hacking, L. Michael
Hadley, A. Bernard
Haines, John T.
Hams, Philip N. (Tim)
Hainsworth, H. Rex
Hales, Frederick S.
Haley, Edward J.
Haley, Thomas D.
Hall, C. Hector G.
Hall, Edwin W. C.
Hall, Harry M.
Hall, R. James
Hallsmith, James M.
Hamblett, Eric P.
Hammond, Clifford F.
Hancock, A. Stanley
Hannant, Frederick J.
Hardwicke, J. Owen
*Hardy, J. Douglas
F Harper, E. Robert
Harper, John F.
Harris, Michael
Harris, Richard T.
Harris, Roland J.
Harris, W. jack A.
Harrison, A. John
Harrison, Donald H.
Harrison, Sydney T.
Harvey, Douglas C.
Harvey, Mark H.
Harvey, Michael A.
Harwood, Frank
Harwood, J. Harold
Hasson, William A.
Hawkins, Kenneth E. (Henry)
Haworth, Tim (A)
Hawthorne, John C. W.
Hayes, John
Hayler, Guy R.
Headley, Henry T.
Heasman, F. Miles
Heath, C. Graham St. G.
Heath, David (A)
Heath, John G. W.
Hedger, Ian R.
Hemingway. Geoffrey S.
Hemmings, William (Jock)
Heron, Michael
Herron, Marjorie
Hetherington, Ralph R.
Hey, Albert
Heywood, John
Hick, John H.
Hill, Allen H.
Hill, Denis
Hill, Derryck A.
Hilling, James M.
Hillman, Jesse J.
Hillyar-Russ, Stephen
Hind, David A.
Hines, James R.
Hinton, Arthur
Hinton, Hedwig N. M. T. M. B.
Hipsley, M. J. Eric
Hitchen, Kenneth E.
Hoar, Gordon F.
Hobbs, Elmer A. (C)
Hobbs, Kenneth F.
Hobson, Reginald T.
Hodgson, William S.
Hodson, Ronald H.
†Hogben, Henry
*Hogg, A. T. Ross
Holder, Eric
Holland, George O.
Holland, Stanley A.
Holliday, Eric
Hollowell, Kenneth H.
Holt, Lionel G.
Honour, Thomas J.
Hooper, Henry G.
Horsfieid, Alexander J.
Horsfield, Jean L. née Cottle
Horwood, Donald J.
Hoskins, Lewis (A)
Howarth, Wilfred H. (C)
Howell, W. Bruce
Hudson, A. Kenneth
Hudson, John E.
Hughes, David H.
Hughes, E. Elizabeth née Webb
Hughes, Eric G.
Hughes, Fred
Hughes, Harold O.
Hughes, M. Glyn
Hull, Felix
Hulland, Eric H.
*Hume, Peter J.
Hunt, A. Geoffrey
Hunt, E. Bruce
Hunt, Francis J. (Frank)
Hurst, Michael S.
Husband, Anthony D.
Hyett, Owen J. A.



Iles, Donald M.
Inchboard, Eric R.
Ineson, E. Ralph
Ingie, Richard B.
Ingram, G. Fred
Ingram, Nigel H.
Inson, A. John
Isherwood, Colin
Ison, E. John
Iszatt, Bertram E.


Jackson, Edward W.
Jackson, G. Bernard
Jackson, Owen G. (NZ)
Jackson, Peter H.
Jackson, Wilfred (NZ)
Jacobs, William E. W. Carpenter
James, Albert F.
James, Haydn L.
Janaway, W. Anthony
Jarman, David
Jefferies, Richard D.
Jenkins, Tabor (A)
Jenkins, Wilym E. C.
Jewson, J. Arthur
Johnes, M. Hugh
Johns, Glyn M.
Johnson, Godfrey
Johnson, John F. (NZ)
Johnson, Leslie C. H.
Johnson, W. Neil (NZ)
Johnson, R. Morgan
Johnston, Alexander W. M.
Johnston, Matthew B. (Sandy)
Johnstone, David G.
Jones, Alan
Jones, A. Geoffrey
Jones, B. Duncan
Jones, Brian
Jones, Emrys R.
Jones, Eric
Jones, E. Wyn
Jones, G. Ogwen
Jones, Howell W. P.
Jones, J. Parry
Jones, Mark W.
Jones, Rita
Jones, Thomas Y. P. (Sandy)
Jordan, William F.
Joynes, Ronald A.
Judd, William E.


Kay, John J.
Kay, Norman C.
Keith, Gordon (C)
Keleher, Reginald T. (Toby)
Kempster, Harold H.
Kennedy, Melville (A)
Kerkham, Thomas L.
Kidd, Norman A.
Kidd, Victor D.
King, Alan P.
King, I. Marjorie
King, John A.
King, Kenneth C.
King, Maurice E.
King, Walter
Kirby, A. Walter J.
Kirby, Michael H.
Kirk, Ernest W.
Kitteridge, Dennis A.
Knight, Bartholomew F.
Knight, Christopher S.
Knight, Gwendoline
Knight, Hardwicke
†Knight, Harold
†Kydd, Ian M.
Kydd, Thomas B.


Lacey, Cyril W.
Lake, M. Islwyn
Lambert, Albert E.
Lambert, Kenneth S.
Lancashire, Norman I.
Last, Alfred H.
Latham, Colin J.
Law, Anthony D.
Lawrence, Gerald W.
Lawry, Reginald E. (Tod)
Lawson, Alan
Laycock, Handley T.
Lee, Michael O'C.
Lee, Ruth A.
Lee, Stephen D.
Legg, Gilbert H.
Le Mare, Proctor S.
Leonard, John
Levering, Griffith (A)
Lewis, Hubert D.
Lewis, Norman N.
Lewis, Wilfred S.
Leyland, John G. (Peter)
Lidbetter, H. Martin
Lilley, W. Howard
Linford, P. Jack
Linney, C. Keith
Lister, Douglas G.
Lister, John M.
Lithgow, Keith B.
Little, J. Kenneth
Little, John W. W.
Llewellin, Kenneth R.
Liewellyn, A. Bernard E.
Lloyd-HumphreyS, Dewi
Locke, H. Brian
Locker, John
Lockyer, Leslie
Lomax, Stuart H.
Lomax, W. Sydney
Long, D. Michael
Longden, Leslie
Longshore, Allen (A)
Loomis, Evarts G. (Frank) (A)
Louderbough, Henry (Hank) (A)
Love, Janet McL.
Low, jean I. F. B.
Lowe, Frederick
Lowry, Harold M.
Lubbock, Derek C.
Lucas, W. Roy (NZ)


Mable, Selwyn E. R.
MacArthur, H. Russell (C)
MacEwan, Hamish G. W.
Macilwain, Samuel S.
Mackenzie, Douglas H.
†Mackintosh, Stanley M.
Mair, George A.
Makin, Geoffrey C. M.
Mallory, George
Maltby, Eleanor M. née Lynam
Maltby, Roy
*Mann, Dennis E.
Mann, Howard P.
Mann, Raymond
Mann, William S.
Marble, James (A)
March, Sherman (A)
Marcussen, Marcus Alan
Marland, Christopher L.
Marley, F. John G.
Marriage, Sampson D.
Marshall, John H.
Marten, L. Brindley
Martin, Angela H. de R. now Sinclair-Loutit
Mason, Peter
Mather, Donald H.
Matheson, Margaret I. née Briggs
Matheson, W. Alastair
Matthews, Paul T.
Mattingly, David
Mattingly, Harold B.
Mattingly, Stephen
May, Edwin G.
Mayer, Adrian C.
Mayo, Horace F.
McBain, Alan E.
McClelland, William G.
McClure, Robert B. (C)
McDonald, Angus
McDonald, Charles K.
McFarlane, Norman F.
McGeoghegan, C. Bernard
McLeish, Alastair C.
Mennell,- Francis J. C.
Mennell, J. Margaret née Stevens
Mennell, Tuke H.
McMahon, John C.
McMillan, Archibald (A)
McMurtry, J. Douglas (C)
Meager, Antony E.
Meara, Brian
Mellor, Henry
Ménage, Victor L.
Merchant, David C.
Merton, L. Francis H.
Miall, William E.
Middleton, F. Reginald
Miles, John P.
Miller, Donald V.
Miller, Margaret
Millington, Thomas F.
Mills, Alec
Mills, A. Raymond
Mills, Hamilton S. Y.
Mills, John L.
Milne, Theodore M. (A)
Milne, James Milnes, J. David
Mirams, Donald R.
Mjolsness, Verdine J. (C)
Moate, Frank
Mole, Kenneth F.
Monaghan-Combs, Terence L.
Mood, Robert A. C.
Moore, Antony R.
Moore, Deryck R.
Moore, Donald H.
Moore, Eunice M. now Woodhead
Moore, Kenneth B.
Moore, William E.
Moorhouse, J. Leslie
Morgan, Dyfnallt (Dick)
Morgan, John
Morgan, Kenneth J.
Morris, David E.
Morris, Leslie
Morris, Richard A.
Moss, Bernard C.
Mottram, Brian H.
Mould, Cyril A.
Mounsey, Colin A.
Mounsey, E. Richey
Mounsey, Michael F.
Mount, Paul M.
Murphy, John
Murphy, W. Rhoads (A)
Myers, Kenneth


Needham, Gerald D.
Neill, Charles E.
Nelson, W. Vernon
Neville, Joseph
Neville, Malcolm
Newby, Thomas C.
Newell, Robert A.
Newhouse, Neville
Newsom, Roger N.
Nicholson, Frank R.
Nickalls, Christopher J.
Nicol, Donald MacG.
Nicolson, John (Ian)
Nixon, W. Edwin
Nochells, Arthur
Norgrove, Vera A.
Norman, Leslie G.
Norris, Frederick J.
Norton, Jack
Noyce, C. Wilfred F.
Nunn, Kenneth B


Oakes, Francis E.
Oakley, Donald P.
O'Brien, Frederick W. F.
Odell, Gilbert A.
O'Neill, Lewis G.
Osborne, Alfred F.
Osborne, Thomas W.
Ottley, S. George
Outhouse, Stanley (C)
Overbury, Brian J.
Oversby, Harold
Oversby, Jack
Owen, Gwilym
Owen, T. Esmor H.
Owens, Stanley R.


Packer, H. Osmond
Page, Bernard
Parker, Leonard
Parkin, Albert
Parnis, Alexander E. L.
Parrott, A. J. Ivor
Parry, Edward R. W.
Parsons, George W.
Parsons, John E.
Partridge, Alec J.
Patten, William
Panic, Richard E.
Paul, Denis E.
Paxton, Richard G.
Peacock, Donovan L.
Pearson, A. Gordon (Eire)
Pearson, Arnold
Pearson, David O.
Pechey, F. John
Peet, Stephen H.
Peile, J. Gray
Perry, Anthony R.
Perry, John W. (A)
Peters, Richard S.
Phelps, Brian L.
Phillips, C. Brian M.
Phillips, L. Gerald
Phillips, Philip L. (Jack)
Phillipson, Harold O.
Philpot, Frank S.
Pick, John B.
Pickering, Ronald D.
Pierpoint, Harry
Pike, J. Christopher
Pim, L. Eileen, now Thompson
Pinney, T. Edward
Pine, George McK.
Pitcher, Donald E.
Pitman, William A.
Pitto, Rita
Pitts, William J.
Place, Ullin T.
Platt, Bryan G. W.
Pollitt, Norman T.
Porteous, Colin J.
Porteous, Kenneth J.
Povell, Richard D.
Powell, Hugh L.
Powell, J. Wilfred
Priestman, Brian
Prior, Colin L.
Pritchard, D. Dylan
Pritchard, Donald F. L.
Progin, R. Jackson
*Protheroe, Norah E. L.
Pryor, A. Dennis
Pulbrook, Roger
Pye, John A.


Raab, Reginald A. (Rex)
Ractliffe, Donald S.
Rabardt, Ernest
Rahill, Lydia E. (A)
Rahill, William A. (A)
Ramsay, Alexander
Ramsbottom, F. Vivian H.
Randall, Edwin (Ted)
†Randall, Ronald E.
Ransome, Roland
Ratcliffe, Douglas J.
Rawlence, Patrick D.
Reed, Walton
Reedman, Robert
Reese, Alan J. M.
Reid, Alexander T. (Jock) U
Renner, Margaret (A)
Reynolds, W. Antony
Richards, Brinley P.
Richards, Gerald B.
Richards, Harry E.
Richards, Leslie W.
Richards, Norman E.
Richmond, Anthony H.
Ridgley, Harold
Ridgway, Heber. (Roy)
Rieveley, John W.
Ripley, Noel L.
Rippington, Alan E.
*Rivett, Louis R. (Pip)
Roach, Vivien now Bolam
Roake, John
Roake, Paul
Roberts, A. Denis
Roberts, N. Robin
Robertshaw, Bernard
Robertson, Edward W.
Robins, O. Peggy
Robinson, Albert V.
Robinson, Ian C. R
obinson, Kenneth G.
Robinson, Valerie S.
Robson, Douglas A.
Rodwell, Henry H.
Rodwell, Joan M. now Kirby
Rodwell, Ralph C.
Roe, Eric W. N.
Rogers, Norman
†Root, Gilbert C. J.
Rose, Ian R. L.
Rose, John C.
Ross, Hector G.
Rossborough, Robert J. B.
Rowlands, A. David
Rowlands, Mary H. now Thackeray
Rowlands, T. Peter
Rowntree, Michael H.
Rowntree, Richard S.
Rowntree, Tessa now Cadbury
Rowntree, W. Keith
Royal, Fred
Royal, Roy
Rudd, David
Rudd, John P.
Ruddell, George Richard (A)
Ruddell, Jo-Marie (A)
Rudgard, Roger R.
Rumpus, Herbert F.
Rumpus, Marcus O.
Russell, Archibald S.
Russell, Hugh H.
Rutter, David K.
Rutter, Peter T.
Rutter, Richard F.
Rutter, Stephen T.
Ryman, Frank W.


Sadler, Norman
Salmon, Rider G.
Salter, John G.
Samuels, Gordon W. R.
Sanford, Philip
Sarfas, Alan J.
Saunders, John M.
Savery, Robert de la G.
Sawdon, Eleanor M.
Sayers, Derek M.
Schneider, Johann R. L. (Czech)
Scott, David C.
Scott, Donald M.
Scott, Douglas F. S.
Scott, F. Hubert
Scott-Kilvert, Ian S.
Seaborne, Leslie R.
Seed, John W.
Series, George W.
Shanaman, S. Logan (A)
Shanks, Robert
Sharman, Christopher B.
Sharman, Ivan A.
Sharp, Ruth
Shaw, Mark Dodds (A)
Shaw, Mary A.
Shepherd, John C. W.
Sherborne, Nancy K. now Frazer
Shercliif, William H.
Shewell, Michael E. J.
Shewell, Richard I.
Shute, Charles D.
Sidwell, Alfred E. (A)
Siggs, David
Sim, T. Raymond
Simmonds, Norman J. (Jim)
Simpson, Frederick H.
Simpson, John E.
Simpson, Ronald B.
Skeel, Jack
Skewes, Harry
Skurr, John S.
Skurr, William S.
Slater, Alan
Slater, W. Arthur
Smallcombe, Gerald W.
Smart, Beryl R. now Barker
Smethurst, Margaret now Stewart
Smewing, David
Smith, Allan E.
Smith, Anthony C.
Smith, Basil W.
Smith, Bernard
Smith, Christopher H.
Smith, Freda
Smith, G. Derek S.
Smith, G. H. Bryan
Smith, George Perry
Smith, G. Eric
Smith, Jack Woodland
Smith, John E.
Smith, Oswald P.
Smith, Paul R.
Smith, Ralph R.
Smith, Ronald
Smith, S. Christian N.
Smith, Stanley R.
Smith, Sydney G.
Smith, T. Frank
Smith, Walter Harold
Smith, Walter Henry (Jack)
Smith, W. Reginald
Soar, D. Geoffrey K.
Soar, John A.
Sorensen, Brian J.
Sorensen, Michael M. R.
Soskice, Peter D.
Southwood, Martin
Sowerbutts, Colin
Sparkes, Roger J.
Speirs, Arnold R.
Speirs, J. Claude
Spencer, George F.
Spillett, David B.
Spray, Rowland J. (Bob)
Spray, William H.
Stafford, David B. (A)
Stanger, Roger
Stanley, Margaret (A)
Stanley, Rupert McC. (A)
Stanton, Clifford L.
Stapleton, Dorothy M.
Stapleton, Millicent G. (Molly) now Waldock
Stapley, Ronald S.
Starr, Francis (C)
Steed, Leslie G.
Steele, Eric
Steele, Kenneth R.
Stevens, Aubrey T.
Stevens, Frank J.
Stevens, Stanley J.
Stevens, Thomas (Sam)
Stewart, Desmond S.
Stewart, Gordon H. (C)
Stickings, Anthony O.
Stoddard, J. Reginald
Stokes, A. John
Stokes, Henry W. (A)
Stokes, Katherine (A)
Stokes, Robert F.
Stokes, W. Alan
Stone, V. Malcolm
Storey, Eric H.
Strachan, John L.
Street, John S.
Strevens, Peter D.
Stuart, Albert F.
Sturge, Richard L.
Sutton, Dennis
Swaisland, H. Charles
Swann, Donald I.
Swift, Norman
Swindale, John R.
Swinstead, David B. R.
Swinstead, Edith née Snowden
Sykes, John
Sykes, Kenneth
Symonds, J. Richard C.


Tait, David
Tanner, David W.
Tanner, John W.
Tanner, Robert F. W.
*Tanner, Thomas L.
Tansley, Ronald E.
Taplin, Raymond
Tarr, Barbara H. now Wilkinson
Tarrant, Michael A.
Tatnall, Arthur H.
Taylor, Alan R.
Taylor, Barbara
Taylor, Brian F.
Taylor, Christopher B.
Taylor, Frank
Taylor, Gordon L.
Taylor, Kenneth G.
Taylor, Leonard A.
Taylor, Norman
Tee, Alec S.
Temple, Frederick S.
Tennant, Peter
Tennyson, B. Hallam A.
Tennyson, Margot
Terry, Douglas F.
Terry, John E.
Te Winkel, John (A)
Thackeray, A. David
Thawley, David L.
Theuer, George (A)
Thomas, Thomas A.
Thompson, Bernard
Thompson, Bernice J. (NZ)
Thompson, Ernest
Thompson, George H.
Thompson, Heath T. (NZ)
Thompson, John E.
Thompson, M. Keith
Thompson, Peter H.
Thompson, Thomas G.
Thomson, William D.
Thorne, Francis R.
Thorne, George W.
Thornton, Peter
Thorpe, Thomas W.
Thrift, E. Beatrice
Thrift, Harold G.
Thurston, Arthur G.
Tickell, E. Alan
Tickell, Ivan H.
Tilsley, Gordon G.
Timms, Alan A. F.
Tipper, Kenneth B.
Tisdall, F. Mackenzie
Tod, David A. N.
Tomalin, Cyril H.
Tomkinson, Leonard
Tomlinson, Albert H.
*Tonks, James P.
Toogood, Arthur S.
Tovey, John E.
Townsend, Paul A.
Townsend, Peter
Trevor, A. H.
Tudor Trew, Anthony J. P.
True, Raymond M.
Turner, Douglas G.
Turner, Eric A. J.
Turner, Phyllis E. née Stringer
Twinn, David
Twyman, Wilfred
Tyldesley, Roy C.
Tyndall, Timothy G.


Ullmann, Richard K. I.
Ure, Peter P.
Urwin, Kenneth F.


Vaughan, George H.
Vere, Ronald
Verney, Stephen E.
Vernon, P. L. Gordon
Verrall, Peter
Veysey, R. Hugh
Vickers, D. Burnell H.
Vincent, Stanley J.
Vlaeminke, Kenneth E.


Waddilove, Lewis E.
Waddington, Eric
Waddington, Joan E.
Waddington, Roy
Wainwright, Richard S.
Wakelin, Paul O.
Walker, Frank
Walker, Hugh E.
Walker, Michael R. W.
Walker, Sidney E.
Waller, Harold
Wallis, Athol J.
Walmesley, R. Gerard
Walmsley, Harold H.
Waltham, Alan R.
Ward, Gilbert
Ward, G. Wallace
Ward, John
Wardman, Alan E.
Wareing, Geoffrey A.
Warnes, Ronald S. R.
Waterfield, D. Humphrey
Watkins, Michael V. H.
Watson, Ernest G.
Watson, George E. C.
Watson, G. Maurice
Watson, J. Derek
Watson, Michael D.
Watts, Joshua
Watts, Michael R.
Way, Gilbert O.
Way, Roger (A)
Webb, D. Frances
Webb, Eric
Webb, J. Barry
Wells, Sidney J.
West, Gordon
Westbrook, Dennis W.
Westell, Margaret B.
Weston, Christopher J.
Westover, William J.
Westwood, Eric S.
Wheatley, Juliet
Whitaker, E. Peter
*White, Clement (A)
White, Cleon
White, Donald J. B.
White, Edwin B.
White, Gladys F.
White, Gordon C.
White, Howard W. G.
White, J. David B.
Whiteley, Herbert G.
Whiteley, Roger C.
Whiteman, John C. R.
Whittle, Jack
Whittles, Marjorie
Whitworth, Basil B. D.
Whitworth, Robin A.
Wickham, Denis A.
Wiebe, Dietrich V. (A)
Wiener, Tom (A)
Wigzell, John D.
Wildman, Kenneth T.
Wilkinson, J. Godfrey
Wilkinson, John E.
Wilks, John
Williams, D. Vernon
Williams, Eric
Williams, Montague F.
Williams, R. Ellis
Williams, Richard T.
Willis, Theodore
Willis, Thomas
Willsher, Frank H.
Wilson, A. Mary E. (Molly) née Weston
Wilson, Eric
Wilson, Frederick
Wilson, Geoffrey G.
Wilson, Hannah M.
Wilson, Howard J.
Wilson, James
Wilson, Ronald
Winstanley, John K.
Winsten, Ruth
Wiper, John G.
Wood, C. Barnard
Wood, Colin
Wood, J. Duncan
Wood, J. S. Graham
Woodcock, Dennis S.
Woodhead, Donald M.
Woodhead, Leonard
Woodhead, Maurice
Woodhouse, Charles F.
Woodrow, Astley F. (Tony)
Woodrow, Park (A)
Woodruff, Harold G.
Woods, Frederick W.
Woods, Rollo G.
Woodward, Doris
Worby, Benjamin
Wright, George W. (C)
Wright, Harold B.
Wrigley, John O. L.
Wrigley, Valentine J.
Wyon, John B.
*Wyon, W. Allan


Yang, Emma (Chinese)
Yang, George (Chinese)
Yates, A. Henry





The following was the Constitution of the F.A.U. in its final form, as accepted by Staff Meeting and ratified by the Council in June and July 1944:


The Friends Ambulance Unit is a Charity governed by Trust Deed dated 20th January 1940. In a schedule of rules forming part of this Deed, control is vested in a committee of management, known as the Council.


The Council or its appointed sub-committee (which shall be known as the General Purposes Committee) shall meet monthly. It shall be presided over by a Chairman. It shall receive reports from an Executive Committee, and shall decide matters of major policy and finance.


Subject to the overriding control of the Council the administration shall act in accordance with the general will and temper of the Unit membership. The responsibility for expressing this shall rest with representative Staff Meetings where they exist, with Section Meetings where they are independent of Staff Meetings, and with the general body of members expressing themselves as they see fit in areas where meetings are impracticable.

The function of these Staff and independent Section Meetings shall be to receive reports from an Executive Committee, to review the conduct of affairs, and to make recommendations to the Council and to an Executive Committee, and to guide the local and central administration of the Unit by expressing what kind of policy and what suppositions behind that policy are acceptable to the general body of Unit members.

The rules of procedure for Staff and independent Section Meetings shall be decided in each area. The London Staff Meeting shall exercise the residual power of making recommendations to the Chairman of the Council for the appointment of Chairman,

Deputy Chairman and members of the Executive Committee, and of making recommendations on matters that in the opinion of the Executive Committee cannot conveniently be decided by Staff and independent Section Meetings separately. In exercising this residual power the London Staff Meeting shall take particular notice of the views of overseas sections.


There shall be an Executive Committee consisting of not less than five and not more than twelve members of the Unit who shall meet not less than once a fortnight. This Committee shall be presided over by a Chairman or Deputy Chairman who shall be responsible to it for the day-to-day conduct of affairs. Appointment of members to the Executive Committee and the appointment of its Chairman and Deputy Chairman shall be made by the Chairman of the Council on the recommendation of the London Staff Meeting and shall be submitted to the Council for ratification. Appointments shall be terminated by the same procedure.

It shall be a duty of the Executive Committee to make and keep up to date a schedule attached to this Constitution showing the separate Staff Meetings and other areas which receive reports from the Executive Committee under the previous section of this Constitution.


Offices shall be created by the Chairman of the Council on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, and similarly abolished. They shall be of two kinds:

1. Executive Offices, holders of which shall be responsible to .the Chairman of the Executive Committee;

2. Unit Offices, holders of which shall be responsible, directly or indirectly, to an Executive Officer.

Appointments to these offices shall be made by the Chairman of the Council on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, and submitted to the Council for ratification. Appointments shall be terminated by the same procedure. When an office is created it shall be clearly laid down whether it be an Executive or a Unit office, and if the latter, to which officer its holder shall be responsible.


Membership of the Unit shall be limited to men and women who share Quaker views on peace and war. Membership shall be of two kinds:

1. Probationary Membership. Applicants for membership may be admitted to probationary membership, which shall last for six weeks. No probationary member shall hold any office of the Unit.

2. Full Membership. This shall be limited to those who, having served the full term of probationary membership, shall be admitted to full membership by the Executive Committee.

All members shall attend a training camp; the Executive Committee having power to waive this rule in specific cases. Members may be asked to resign their membership by the Executive Committee. Any member asked to resign shall have the right of appeal to the Council.


Any member wishing to make any suggestions or raise any point shall always have the right of direct access to the Chairman of the Council and to the Chairman of the Executive Committee.


This Constitution may be amended by the Council, on the recommendation of the London Staff Meeting.




This Appendix provides for purposes of record a more detailed account of the income and expenditure and financial administration of the Unit than was desirable in the course of the general narrative. Not the least interesting aspect of the Unit's growth over six and a half years was the development of its financial structure to enable resources at every stage to match the needs.

The Unit was a charitable Trust created by Trust Deed. This Deed set up the Council, which appointed the General Purposes Committee, and a Finance Sub-Committee charged with the supervision of the Unit's financial affairs. A member of the Unit was appointed Finance Officer, with responsibility to the Finance Sub-Committee.


The first member to carry the title of Finance Officer was E. Richey Mounsey, who managed the Unit's finances throughout most of 1940 and 1941, a period which included the initial organization of an office system, the early air-raids and the beginnings of relief work, and the equipping and dispatch of the first parties to go overseas after the return from Finland. He was joined by Peter Leyland as the first Unit Accountant in October 1940.

In August 1941 Richey Mounsey became leader of the Ethiopian Convoy and Sandy Parnis was appointed to succeed him. It was to him that the task mainly fell of re-organizing and building up the office on a scale capable of sustaining a rapidly increasing volume of work. Among other things, it was necessary to abandon the system of Receipts and Payments for an Income and Expenditure Account with a Balance Sheet giving a more accurate picture of the real financial position. At that time, too, the Honorary Treasurers---Joseph Gillett and Basil Priestman, who had been closely associated in the day-to-day conduct of Unit finances and had prepared the final accounts for the first two years---delegated all the detailed work to the London Headquarters of the Unit.

Sandy Parnis was succeeded in turn by Oswald Dick and Fred Hannant.


The office was divided into three branches, each responsible to the Finance Officer, who was usually a member of the Unit's Executive Committee and for a long time its Secretary.

(1) The Accounts Office, under the Unit Accountant, was responsible for all book-keeping, including that for the Members' Assistance Fund and the personal moneys paid in for transmission to members overseas.

In each section of the Unit in Britain a member was appointed cashier with the duty of rendering a monthly account from a petty cash book kept on the imprest system. Overseas a similar system prevailed, but the form of accounting had to be adapted to meet varying conditions, and the sections were given much greater latitude. Usually they rendered summarized accounts at monthly or quarterly intervals; each of the larger sections had a qualified accountant in charge of the work, and where possible a number of sections, e.g. in the Mediterranean area, were grouped under a Regional Accountant.

(2) The Equipment Office, under the Equipment Officer, was responsible for all the equipment required by members at home and overseas which was not provided by other sources, such as the Army and the bodies for which the Unit worked. In addition it carried a wide range of civilian clothing, purchased at wholesale prices, to meet the convenience of members. The furnishing and equipping of Unit hostels, negotiations with the Board of Trade and other bodies were among its many functions.

(3) The Quartermaster was responsible for the feeding of the Unit at all sections in Britain which were not victualled by the organizations for which they worked, together with the training schemes for cooks described elsewhere. In addition, he supplied stationery and office sundries and was responsible for the bulk purchase of medical and surgical equipment for sections overseas.


(1) From the General Fund. Throughout, members of the Unit served on a voluntary basis with no guarantee of compensation in the event of injury or death. Only in the last few months was it necessary to pay salaries to a few key administrators who were essential during the period of closing down the Unit's work but could not give further service without payment.

The Unit assumed responsibility for the board and lodging of its members, but it early became clear that further help was needed towards the necessities of life. Accordingly the following allowances from the General Fund of the Unit were introduced as and when the financial position permitted:

(i) Clothing allowance for members at home up to £12 10s. a year, increased to £15 in July 1945. Members overseas had uniform provided.

(ii) An allowance for toilet requisites up to 1s. a week.

(iii) Leave fares home four times a year.

(iv) Subsistence of 15s. a week where needed during leave.

(v) Dependants' allowances in cases of need, designed to leave the dependants of a member in approximately the same financial position as if he had been serving as a private in the Army.

(vi) Medical and dental treatment.

Modifications in these allowances had to be made for members overseas to meet the circumstances of the particular countries in which they served.

(2) From the Members' Assistance Fund. Board and lodging and certain accountable expenses, as described above, were charged to the General Fund of the Unit. But there was also from the beginning a need to provide pocket money. Earlier camps adopted a system of sharing personal moneys by means of a Mutual Assistance Fund to which those with private resources contributed and from which others could draw an allowance of £1 per month. The system continued until September 1941, when the Fund was properly constituted as an independent Trust under the title of the Friends Ambulance Unit Members' Assistance Fund.

The rate of pocket money allowances was increased to 25s. a month in September 1941, 27s. 6d. in January 1944 and 32s. 6d. in April 1945 to meet the increasing cost of living. By October 1944 the resources of the Fund were inadequate to meet the growing burden, and those who had served more than two years in the Unit received their allowances thenceforth from the General Fund of the Unit.

The M.A.F. supplemented the Unit allowances to dependants in case of need, and lump sum grants were paid from it to meet particular contingencies such as illnesses or wives' confinements. It enabled members to keep life insurance policies in force by advancing the premiums as loans. In the latter part of the war the Fund was built up beyond immediate needs in order to make possible a scheme of post-war training for those members whose education had been interrupted by their service in the Unit. The accounts of the Fund, which for this latter purpose is likely to remain in existence for many years, are set out in the third table at the end of this Appendix.


The first table at the end of the Appendix sets out the main heads of income and expenditure for each year of the Unit's existence.

The underlying principle of financial policy was that, while the Unit never refused work which it believed to be necessary and desirable simply because it was unpaid, contributions were sought wherever possible from the bodies for which the work was done. Thus activities were extended as far as possible without the loss of independence and the freedom to undertake work, such as that of the India section, which would have been prejudiced had it been financed too heavily from official sources. Often work was begun at Unit expense because it was felt to be necessary, and at a later stage contributions sufficient to make the work self-supporting were received from the body concerned when it recognized the value of the work.

The main financial story began with the Finland expedition, which cost some £20,000 and was met wholly from private subscriptions. Training was a heavy item from the beginning and had mostly to be met from the Unit's own resources, although at a later stage some could be recouped. Relief work in England was financed entirely by the Friends War Victims Relief Committee with funds derived from the American Friends Service Committee, until by the amalgamation of the F.W.V.R.C. and the Home Relief Section of the F.A.U., the work became the responsibility of the new Friends War Relief Service.

By 1941 overseas work was beginning to expand. The China Convoy, which was much the most costly section owing to the high cost of living and the unfavourable rate of exchange, was financed entirely by special grants from the British Government, from America and later from Canada, as described in the chapters on the China Convoy. The table does not show the full cost of the section, as accounts for the American and Canadian funds were rendered direct to Philadelphia and Toronto.

The Ethiopia section involved a heavy outlay on equipment, but thereafter maintenance and passages to and from Ethiopia were covered by grants from the Ethiopian Government.

Sections working with the Forces in the Middle East, and subsequently in Europe, were financed in two ways. Those working with the British Army received their full maintenance and replacements of equipment, leaving only initial equipment and incidental expenses and allowances to be drawn from Unit funds. Later even basic initial equipment was drawn from the Army. Those working with the Fighting French received at first only their maintenance, but subsequently a contribution of £2 per man per week was in addition paid to the Unit.

In hospitals in Britain board and lodging had always been provided; by 1942 arrangements had been made for a contribution towards the allowances of members and the overhead expenses of the sections.

1942 brought the full development at home of the Equipment and Transport Departments and the necessary expansion of Administration. Overseas it saw the beginning of the India section which throughout constituted a heavy burden on Unit funds.

By 1943 the policy of securing contributions towards the work was bearing fruit, and in that year, for the first time since 1940, there was a surplus of income over expenditure, making possible the extension of activities in 1944 into civilian relief work in Europe. Under an agreement negotiated by the Council of British Societies for Relief Abroad 50 per cent. of expenditure on relief work overseas was allowed to rank for grant from the Foreign Office. By 1945 the Unit's general financial position was such that it was possible for the £10,000 recouped under this agreement to be used to finance further relief projects in Europe and provide supplies.

1946 was concerned with the winding up or handing over of Unit work to other bodies with, wherever possible, sufficient funds to facilitate their successful continuance.

The support afforded to the Unit by subscriptions from all classes of the community was remarkable. It began with the good will of a large number of Friends and the tradition of the old Unit as a firm foundation, but soon support came from much farther afield. It ranged from a few stamps and a tin full of three-penny pieces to a single gift of £10,000. From old-age pensioners as well as large businesses came donations in answer to the Unit's various appeals, particularly the annual appeal made by the publication of an Annual Report which was the mainstay of the subscribed income. It was often a source of pride, and a humbling experience, to go through the morning's mail at Headquarters. The peak of the subscriptions was reached during the winter of 1943/44, when the Bengal Famine appeal, the Unit's annual appeal and the B.B.C. "Week's Good Cause" appeal followed hard upon one another. The Famine appeal produced £15,931 in about 8,000 letters, and the B.B.C. appeal £7,200 in about 7,000 letters.

Deeds of Covenant provided not only an assured income but the recovering of income tax on the subscriptions involved. The Unit was able to recover £11,366 on 281 covenants during the six years to 5th April 1946.

The three tables which follow show (1) a brief Income and Expenditure Account of Unit funds for the years 1940-46 ; (2) the Unit's Balance Sheet at 30th September 1944, the close of the year when its finances reached their peak ; (3) a brief Account of the Members' Assistance Fund for 1942-46.

It was a striking tribute to the inherent generosity of the British people that a body like the Unit could draw funds from so many different sources and maintain so many activities during the most destructive war in history.



Receipts and Payment Basis

     Income and Expenditure Basis

Year to 30th September:














Subscriptions and Donations







Contributions and Grants:








     Home Relief Work
     (F.W.V.R.C. and others)


     Finland Appeal

          British Fund and
          H.M. Government





















          Bengal Famine Appeal        

     Hadfield Spears Unit
     and S.I.84155



     Relief Supplies          


     H.M.G. Relief Grant        


B.B.C. Appeals  


Sundry Receipts
















Home Sections







Relief Work in England



Overseas Sections:              























     North-West Europe        



     Relief Supplies          



     Equipment and Transport  



















Personal Allowances  






Dependants' Allowances      




Depreciation and Dilapidation    









Sundry Expenses















* Some headings for these two years are not strictly comparable with the following years.










General Fund:       Fixed Assets as valued at 1st October 1941 and additions less Sales and Depreciation:
As at 1st October 1943

    Motor Vehicles

Add Excess of Income over Expenditure

    Office Furniture



China Fund:       Cash and Remittances Abroad  

As at 1st October 1943


Add Excess of Income over Expenditure

    Current Assets:    


Ethiopia Fund:       Debtors and Prepaid Expenses

Excess of Income over Expenditure

    Cash at Bank and in Hand

Less Deficiency as at 1st October 1943



India Fund:            
As at 1st October 1943

Add Excess of Income over Expenditure







Current Liabilities:            
Creditors and provisions for accrued charges    







Year to 30th September:










Balance of Old Mutual Assistance Fund

Subscriptions and Donations





Bank Interest















Dependants' Allowances  




Post-War Training Fund        

Administration Expenses











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